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Luke 22:21-30

Sunday Morning Bible Study

April 9, 2017


Do people see Jesus? Is the gospel preached? Does it address the person who is: Empty, lonely, guilty, or afraid to die? Does it speak to the broken hearted? Does it build up the church? Milk – Meat – Manna Preach for a decision Is the church loved? Regular: 2900 words Communion: 2500 words Video=75wpm

Thursday Night is Movie Night – The Robe

The movie is based on the fictional book “The Robe”, written by a pastor when someone asked him, “What became of the robe of Jesus that the soldiers gambled for at the cross?”

It took the producer 10 years to get the movie made.

It was the first movie ever produced in Cinemascope (wide screen).

It was the movie that made Richard Burton famous.

The success of the Robe led to all the “sword and sandal” epics made after it like “The Ten Commandments”, “Ben Hur”, and “Cleopatra”.

On a side note, George Clooney’s 2016 movie “Hail Caesar!”, a movie about making movies during the McCarthy anti-communist days of the early 1950’s gives you a taste of what kind of things were going on in the days when they made the Robe.

Video: The Robe Trailer

Luke was a doctor and a travelling companion of the apostle Paul.

He wrote this book while Paul was in prison.

In writing this book about Jesus, Luke made use of other older documents like the Gospel of Mark, as well as extensive eyewitness accounts.

Jesus’ ministry is well under way, and the people have been amazed not just at the things He’s been teaching, but the things He’s been doing.

We are now on the homestretch of Jesus’ ministry.

Jesus is now in Jerusalem, on His way to be crucified.

Luke has reminded us of what Jesus’ main purpose was in life:

(Luke 19:10 NKJV) for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost.”

We saw Jesus arrive in Jerusalem on a Sunday, to the shouts of an adoring crowd, crying “Hosanna”.

After cleansing the Temple, Jesus taught every day in the Temple.

We are now on Thursday night, the night of the Last Supper.

It is the time of the Passover meal, remembering God’s great deliverance from Egypt. Jesus has just given the celebration a new meaning, tying the bread and the wine to His own New Covenant.

While we believe that the bread of communion is just bread, and the grape juice is just grape juice, we also talked about how communion is a time where we draw near to God and remember what Jesus did for us when He gave His body and blood to pay for our sins.

After giving instruction about communion, Jesus went on to say…

22:21-23 Betrayal is close

:21 But behold, the hand of My betrayer is with Me on the table.

betrayerparadidomi – to give into the hands (of another); to give over into (one’s) power or use; to deliver to one something to keep, use, take care of, manage; to deliver up one to custody, to be judged, condemned, punished, scourged, tormented, put to death; to deliver up treacherously; by betrayal to cause one to be taken

Present active participle

the tabletrapeza – a table

:21 My betrayer is with Me on the table

Jesus said in John 13:18 that His betrayal was a fulfillment of prophecy.

(Psalm 41:9 NKJV) Even my own familiar friend in whom I trusted, Who ate my bread, Has lifted up his heel against me.
In ancient days, you only let people you care about share your food with you.
If a group of us go out to eat at Cheesecake Factory, don’t expect me to share any of my Tuscan Chicken with you, though I might let my wife have a bite or two if she asks.
At the Last Supper, John recorded that Jesus took a piece of bread, dipped it in the Tuscan Chicken sauce, and shared it with… Judas.

We know several things from studying John’s account of the dinner that night.

Jesus had two people reclining next to him.
John the apostle was on Jesus’ right.
Judas was on Jesus’ left.

Peter was not anywhere near Jesus.


He knows betrayal

Don’t think that Judas was the one disciple that wore a black robe and had an evil smirk on his face.
He was considered a close friend of Jesus.
Jesus shared His Tuscan Chicken with Judas.
We think that from John’s description of the supper, that Judas was sitting right next to Jesus.
Jesus never let on who the betrayer was, partly to give Judas a chance to not betray him.
Some of you know what it’s like to share your soul with another person, only to have them turn their back on you and betray you.
At a wedding ceremony, the pastor asked if anyone had anything to say concerning the union of the bride and groom, it was their time to stand up and talk, or forever hold their peace. The moment of utter silence was broken by a young beautiful woman carrying a child. She started walking toward the pastor slowly. Everything quickly turned to chaos. The bride slapped the groom. The groom’s mother fainted. The groomsmen started giving each other looks and wondering how best to help save the situation. The pastor asked the woman, “Can you tell us why you came forward? What do you have to say?” The woman replied, “We can’t hear in the back.”
Some of your non-Christian friends have been through things similar to you, and though they mean well, you ought to be careful about the advice they give you. They may not see the bigger picture.
The answers they share may not be the answers you need.
Ultimately, the one we should run to when we’ve been betrayed is Jesus.
Jesus knows what you need.
(Hebrews 4:15–16 NKJV) —15 For we do not have a High Priest who cannot sympathize with our weaknesses, but was in all points tempted as we are, yet without sin. 16 Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need.

:22 And truly the Son of Man goes as it has been determined, but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!”

trulymen – truly, certainly, surely, indeed

goesporeuomai – to lead over, carry over, transfer; to pursue the journey on which one has entered, to continue on one’s journey

determinedhorizo – to define; to mark out the boundaries or limits (of any place or thing); determine, appoint; that which has been determined, acc. to appointment, decree

He is betrayedparadidomi – to give into the hands (of another); to give over into (one’s) power or use; to deliver to one something to keep, use, take care of, manage; to deliver up one to custody, to be judged, condemned, punished, scourged, tormented, put to death; to deliver up treacherously; by betrayal to cause one to be taken

:22 determined … but woe to that man

For you theologians out there, perhaps you’ve wrestled with the age-old debate of the sovereignty of God versus the free will of man.

I won’t take time to fill in all the blanks for you today, but in this verse you have nuggets of both sides.

It was predetermined that Jesus would be betrayed and die.
Yet the man Judas made a choice to betray.


God’s Plan, Man’s Choice

There is an age-old debate in the church between the sovereignty of God and the free will of man.
Usually the issue has to do with how man is saved.

Is a man saved because God has chosen him, or is a man saved because man has chosen God?

We see the same two principles in our verse, and it shows that there is room to hold to both sides of the coin.
God planned for Jesus to be betrayed and killed.
Several prophecies point to someone close to Jesus betraying Him.

We already looked at Ps. 41:9. There’s also this:

(Psalm 55:12–14 NKJV) —12 For it is not an enemy who reproaches me; Then I could bear it. Nor is it one who hates me who has exalted himself against me; Then I could hide from him. 13 But it was you, a man my equal, My companion and my acquaintance. 14 We took sweet counsel together, And walked to the house of God in the throng.

It was in God’s plan for Jesus to die for our sins from the very beginning.

After their first taste of persecution, the early church prayed like this:

(Acts 4:27–28 NKJV) —27 “For truly against Your holy Servant Jesus, whom You anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles and the people of Israel, were gathered together 28 to do whatever Your hand and Your purpose determined before to be done.

John is talking about people who worship the antichrist when he writes,

(Revelation 13:8 NKJV) All who dwell on the earth will worship him, whose names have not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

In God’s eyes, Jesus was already slain for our sins before the world was even formed.

You see pictures of it through the Old Testament, such as when Abraham is told to go to Mount Moriah and sacrifice his only son Isaac, only to have his son replaced by a ram. (Gen. 22).

Judas also had a choice in the matter.
Early on Judas made the choice, and Jesus knew it, but Judas still had a choice.
Even at the last supper, Jesus was reaching out to Judas, showing him honor and love as if to say, “You don’t have to do this”.
Yet Judas chose to do it, and Satan helped him once he chose.

:23 Then they began to question among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing.

:23 who would do this thing

they beganarchomai – to be the first to do (anything), to begin; to begin, make a beginning

to questionsuzeteo – to seek or examine together; in the NT to discuss, dispute, question

who wouldmello – to be about; to be on the point of doing or suffering something; to intend, have in mind, think to

Matthew gives us just a little more detail:

(Matthew 26:22 NKJV) And they were exceedingly sorrowful, and each of them began to say to Him, “Lord, is it I?”



I think self-examination is a good thing.
Rather than pointing their fingers at each other, asking, “Is it HIM?”, they are all wondering about themselves.
When you read the Scriptures, or listen to a message on Sunday morning, who are you thinking about?
Are you quick to think, “I wish so-and-so was listening to this, he really needs to get his act together”, or are you asking, “Lord, is it I”?
One caution about self-examination is that we may deceive ourselves at times.
Matthew tells us (Mat. 26:25) that even Judas asked, “Rabbi, is it I?” He said this even though he had already made initial contact with the chief priests to betray Jesus.

(Matthew 26:25 NKJV) Then Judas, who was betraying Him, answered and said, “Rabbi, is it I?” He said to him, “You have said it.”

We might sit through a sermon on pornography and tell ourselves, “Oh I’ll never do that”, when deep down inside we know we will and we have no intention to change course in our lives.

That’s Judas.

One place we ought to examine ourselves is at communion.
(1 Corinthians 11:23–28 NLT) —23 For I pass on to you what I received from the Lord himself. On the night when he was betrayed, the Lord Jesus took some bread 24 and gave thanks to God for it. Then he broke it in pieces and said, “This is my body, which is given for you. Do this to remember me.” 25 In the same way, he took the cup of wine after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant between God and his people—an agreement confirmed with my blood. Do this to remember me as often as you drink it.” 26 For every time you eat this bread and drink this cup, you are announcing the Lord’s death until he comes again. 27 So anyone who eats this bread or drinks this cup of the Lord unworthily is guilty of sinning against the body and blood of the Lord. 28 That is why you should examine yourself before eating the bread and drinking the cup.

examinedokimazo – to test, examine, prove, scrutinize (to see whether a thing is genuine or not), as metals

What does it mean to take communion “unworthily” (v.27)?

I believe it means that you are taking communion as an unbeliever, you do not believe that Jesus died for your sins.

After the days of the apostles, the early church began to divide their Sundays into two church services.

The first service was about teaching God’s word and instructing those who weren’t yet believers.

The second service was only for those who were believers, and this was when they would celebrate communion.

Some churches take this “self-examination” to mean that if you have committed some sin in the last 72 hours, that you are not allowed to take communion.

The problem with that is that none of us would ever take communion because we are all sinners.

The real issue is whether or not you are a sinner that needs the grace, forgiveness, and love of Jesus Christ.

If you are, then you are welcome to participate.

The Old Scottish preacher Robert Murray McCheyne used to say, “Communion is for sinners”.

This humble self-examination by the apostles doesn’t last. Within minutes their own sin nature is exerting itself…

22:24-30 The Greatest

:24 Now there was also a dispute among them, as to which of them should be considered the greatest.

:24 there was also a dispute among them

dispute philoneikia (“love” + “quarrel”) – love of strife, eagerness to contend

They loved a good fight.

This wasn’t the only time they had a “dispute” like this. Mark records they had argued back in Capernaum. When Jesus asked them what they were arguing about…

(Mark 9:34 NKJV) But they kept silent, for on the road they had disputed among themselves who would be the greatest.

We can sometimes get the idea that the disciples were all humble, perfect gentlemen who never had a cross word between them.

I think they were probably a little more like this…
Video: Three Stooges Pie Fight

:24 which of them should be considered the greatest

should be considered dokeo – to be of opinion, think, suppose; to seem, to be accounted, reputed; refers to the subjective judgment, which may or may not conform to the fact

the greatest meizon – greater, larger, elder, stronger; the comparative form of megas – not “great”, or “greatest” (superlative), but in between, “greater”.

This isn’t even the first time they’ve argued over this issue.

They had this “discussion” (or “pie fight”) back in Capernaum (Mark 9:34), as well as in Jericho (Mark 10:35-37)
(Mark 9:34 NKJV) —34 But they kept silent, for on the road they had disputed among themselves who would be the greatest.
(Mark 10:35–37 NKJV) —35 Then James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came to Him, saying, “Teacher, we want You to do for us whatever we ask.” 36 And He said to them, “What do you want Me to do for you?” 37 They said to Him, “Grant us that we may sit, one on Your right hand and the other on Your left, in Your glory.”

And now at the Last Supper, they’re still arguing over it.

Jesus mentioned that there would be a betrayer.

Their first response was “Lord, is it I”.
And then it digressed, “Well Thaddeus, maybe it could be you”. “You know, it probably isn’t me after all ‘cause I’m not as bad as you”.

:25 And He said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and those who exercise authority over them are called ‘benefactors.’

the kingsbasileus – leader of the people, prince, commander, lord of the land, king

the Gentilesethnos – a multitude (whether of men or of beasts) associated or living together; a multitude of individuals of the same nature or genus; a tribe, nation, people group; in the OT, foreign nations not worshipping the true God, pagans, Gentiles

exercise lordship kurieuo – to be lord of, to rule, have dominion over; of things and forces; to exercise influence upon, to have power over; to “lord it over”

those who exercise authority exousiazo – to have power or authority, use power; to be master of any one, exercise authority over one

benefactors euergetes (“good” + “works”) – benefactor; a title of honor

It was a custom among the ancient Romans to distribute part of the lands which they had conquered on the frontiers of the empire to their soldiers; those who enjoyed such lands were called beneficiarii, beneficed persons. These Roman kings, even though they may have been extremely corrupt or oppressive were called “benefactors” because they gave these lands.

:25 the kings … benefactors

In the Gentile world, even evil dictators would do things like give out land grants to their head soldiers.

When they did this, they were called “benefactors”, or men who did “good works”
Jesus doesn’t want us to become nice dictators.

benefactors euergetes (“good” + “works”) – benefactor; a title of honor

Jesus is going to contrast what the world’s leaders are like with what His leaders will be like.

In the Roman world, the kings were ruthless men who had complete authority to do whatever they like and order people to do whatever they wanted.

When their armies conquered lands, a king might reward some of his soldiers by giving them lands.

The soldiers were called the “beneficiaries”, and the kings were called the “benefactors”.
Wicked kings were given a title of honor, even though they were ruthless dictators.

:26 But not so among you; on the contrary, he who is greatest among you, let him be as the younger, and he who governs as he who serves.

greatestmeizon – greater, larger, elder, stronger; the comparative form of megas – not “great”, or “greatest” (superlative), but in between, “greater”.

let him be – imperative – a command.

the younger neos – recently born, young, youthful; new; just as the word “greatest” (above) is “comparative” in form, this word is also comparative. Not just “young” but “younger”.

Better translation, “He that is greater, let him be as the younger

he who governshegeomai – to lead; to go before; to be a leader; to rule, command; to have authority over; a prince, of regal power, governor, viceroy, chief, leading as respects influence, controlling in counsel, overseers or leaders of the churches

he who servesdiakoneo – to be a servant, attendant, domestic, to serve, wait upon; to minister to one, render ministering offices to; to wait at a table and offer food and drink to the guests,; to relieve one’s necessities (e.g. by collecting alms), to provide take care of, distribute, the things necessary to sustain life; to attend to anything, that may serve another’s interests

:26 greatest …let him be as the younger

It’s almost like that show “Undercover Boss”, when the boss of a company disguises himself and becomes a lowly employee.

Video:  Star Wars Undercover Boss Kylo Ren
Well maybe not quite like that…

Jesus’ idea of leadership is that they learn true humility and servanthood.

It’s the youngest kid that always gets the last place.

It’s the youngest kid that has to sit in the most uncomfortable seat in the car (I know, I was the youngest!).

It’s the youngest kid who usually wears hand-me-down clothes (unless your older siblings are sisters).

It’s the youngest kid whose advice is usually asked for last.

:27 For who is greater, he who sits at the table, or he who serves? Is it not he who sits at the table?

greatermeizon – greater, larger, elder, stronger; the comparative form of megas – not “great”, or “greatest” (superlative), but in between, “greater”.

he who sits at the tableanakeimai – to lie at a table, eat together, dine

he who servesdiakoneo – to be a servant, attendant, domestic, to serve, wait upon; to minister to one, render ministering offices to; to wait at a table and offer food and drink to the guests; to relieve one’s necessities (e.g. by collecting alms), to provide take care of, distribute, the things necessary to sustain life; to attend to anything, that may serve another’s interests

:27 who is greater

Jesus sets the guys up with this question.

The answer is meant to be obvious.
The greater person is obviously the one laying down having grapes dropped into his mouth by the lowly slave.  Not.

:27 Yet I am among you as the One who serves.

amongmesos – middle; the midst; in the midst of, amongst

:27 the One who serves

servesdiakoneo – to be a servant, attendant; to wait at a table and offer food and drink to the guests

Earlier that evening, when no one had done the simple courteous job of washing the feet of the guests, Jesus got up and washed the disciples’ feet.

The disciples were quite embarrassed that Jesus had humbled himself that way.

But Jesus didn’t mean to embarrass the guys…

(John 13:15 NKJV) For I have given you an example, that you should do as I have done to you.


Mature Servants

I think we get this idea in our heads that the more important we are, the less we have to do for others.
Jesus taught that maturity is measured by how you serve others.
Video:  The Holderness Family – “You’re Welcome”
Sometimes we give ourselves a little too much credit when we haven’t really done anything helpful to serve at all.
I was excited to hear that our youth had the opportunity to serve at the big youth conference this weekend. Good job!
There are lots of opportunities to serve at church.
The guys could use some help in preparing, serving, and cleaning up at the Easter Breakfast next Sunday.
We have some serious needs this summer on Thursday nights in the Children’s Ministry when Sarah goes on maternity leave, another key teacher is on chemotherapy.
Tom is always looking for people to help serve in the parking lot.
I believe there are a few spots to fill on the Audio/Visual team.

:28 “But you are those who have continued with Me in My trials.

trials peirasmos – an experiment, trial, proving

This word is often used to describe a temptation to sin, but it sometimes is used to describe a tough time, a “trial”, such as in:

(James 1:2–4 NKJV) —2 My brethren, count it all joy when you fall into various trials, 3 knowing that the testing of your faith produces patience. 4 But let patience have its perfect work, that you may be perfect and complete, lacking nothing.

:29 And I bestow upon you a kingdom, just as My Father bestowed one upon Me,

I bestowdiatithemai – to arrange, dispose of, one’s own affairs; to make a covenant, enter into a covenant, with one

bestoweddiatithemai – to arrange, dispose of, one’s own affairs; to make a covenant, enter into a covenant, with one

:30 that you may eat and drink at My table in My kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

eatesthio – to eat; to take food, eat a meal

drinkpino – to drink

tabletrapeza – a table

:30 eat and drink at My table in My kingdom

Jesus has just served His disciples a Passover Feast. He’s just served them Bread and Wine, and told them to remember Him.

Now Jesus says to His guys that they are going to eat and drink at His table in His kingdom.

:30 sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes

thronesthronos – a throne seat

judgingkrino – to separate, put asunder, to pick out, select, choose; to determine, resolve, decree; to judge; to pronounce an opinion concerning right and wrong; to rule, govern; to preside over with the power of giving judicial decisions, because it was the prerogative of kings and rulers to pass judgment

Why did Jesus choose twelve apostles and not ten or fourteen?

Their number corresponds to the number of tribes of Israel.
This is probably one big reason why the apostles made sure to replace Judas after he betrayed Jesus and then killed himself (Acts 1:15-26).

James and John actually were not too far off in their request to be near Jesus in His kingdom.

They will be sitting on thrones, it’s just the order might not have been what they requested.
They will be eating and drinking with Jesus in the kingdom, they will be served in the kingdom, but NOW is not the time to be served. Now is the time to serve.

:28 who have continued with Me in My trials

who have continued diameno (“through” + “remain”) – to stay permanently, remain permanently, continue.

Perfect active participle
This is a perfect tense, meaning that the action has happened in the past and the results continue on into the present.

Jesus is promising His disciples great rewards (like thrones) for having stuck it out with Him.

Life was not easy following Jesus.
He didn’t stay at the best hotels.
At times He was run out of town.
He was constantly being challenged and criticized by the religious leaders.
Yet these men have remained with Jesus through it all.


Keep Going

The apostles didn’t just endure difficult times with Jesus for 3 ½ years, they endured after Jesus died, rose, and ascended into heaven.
Peter was crucified upside down.
Thomas was speared by soldiers.
Matthew was stabbed to death.
John was boiled in hot oil (and somehow survived).
All twelve suffered great persecution.
God promises rewards for us as well, but we need to endure, even in the hard times.
Listen to what Jesus wrote to the suffering church in Smyrna:

(Revelation 2:10 NKJV) Do not fear any of those things which you are about to suffer. Indeed, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison, that you may be tested, and you will have tribulation ten days. Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life.

To the faithful church of Philadelphia:

(Revelation 3:10–11 NKJV) —10 Because you have kept My command to persevere, I also will keep you from the hour of trial which shall come upon the whole world, to test those who dwell on the earth. 11 Behold, I am coming quickly! Hold fast what you have, that no one may take your crown.

Sometimes as we are going through difficult times, things just don’t make sense. We don’t understand what is happening.
One Sunday morning at a small southern church, the new pastor called on one of his older deacons to lead in the opening prayer. The deacon stood up, bowed his head and said, “Lord, I hate buttermilk.” The pastor opened one eye and wondered where this was going. The deacon continued, “Lord, I hate lard.” Now the pastor was totally perplexed. The deacon continued, “Lord, I ain’t too crazy about plain flour. But after you mix ‘em all together and bake ‘em in a hot oven, I just love biscuits.” He paused, “Lord help us to realize when life gets hard, when things come up that we don’t like, whenever we don’t understand what You are doing, that we need to wait and see what You are making. After you get through mixing and baking, it’ll probably be something even better than biscuits.” Amen.
We need to trust that the Master Baker knows what He’s doing with the ingredients He’s putting into our lives.
Paul wrote,
(2 Corinthians 4:16–18 NKJV) —16 Therefore we do not lose heart. Even though our outward man is perishing, yet the inward man is being renewed day by day. 17 For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, is working for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory, 18 while we do not look at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen. For the things which are seen are temporary, but the things which are not seen are eternal.

Keep going.  See what kind of biscuits God is baking.

The writer of Hebrews was trying to encourage his readers not to quit following Jesus, even though they were going through great difficulties.
Over and over again, the theme is to “endure”.
(Hebrews 12:1–2 NKJV) —1 Therefore we also, since we are surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which so easily ensnares us, and let us run with endurance the race that is set before us, 2 looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith, who for the joy that was set before Him endured the cross, despising the shame, and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.

The word for “endure” is very similar to the word for “continue” (Luke 22:28).

patiencehupomone (“under” + “remain”) – steadfastness, endurance; the man who is not swerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings

We “continue” (remain through) with Jesus as we learn to “endure” (remain under) our trials.