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Luke 22:14-20

Sunday Morning Bible Study

April 2, 2017


Do people see Jesus? Is the gospel preached? Does it address the person who is: Empty, lonely, guilty, or afraid to die?  Does it speak to the broken hearted? Does it build up the church? Milk – Meat – Manna Preach for a decision Is the church loved? Regular:  2900 words    Communion: 2500 words  Video=75wpm

Luke was a doctor and a travelling companion of the apostle Paul.

He wrote this book while Paul was in prison.

In writing this book about Jesus, Luke made use of other older documents like the Gospel of Mark, as well as extensive eyewitness accounts.

Jesus’ ministry is well under way, and the people have been amazed not just at the things He’s been teaching, but the things He’s been doing.

We are now on the homestretch of Jesus’ ministry.

Jesus is now in Jerusalem, on His way to be crucified.

Luke has reminded us of what Jesus’ main purpose was in life:

(Luke 19:10 NKJV) for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost.”

We saw Jesus arrive in Jerusalem on a Sunday, to the shouts of an adoring crowd, crying “Hosanna”.

After cleansing the Temple, Jesus taught every day in the Temple.

We are now on Thursday night, the night of the Last Supper, the night that Jesus is betrayed.

22:14-18 Passover Begins

:14 When the hour had come, He sat down, and the twelve apostles with Him.

had comeginomai – to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being; to become, i.e. to come to pass, happen


:14 When the hour had come

It could be that it simply is referring to the hour when the Passover meal is to begin, around 6:00 p.m.

Yet Jesus referred many times to a special “hour” that was coming.

(John 2:4 NKJV) Jesus said to her, “Woman, what does your concern have to do with Me? My hour has not yet come.”
(John 8:20 NKJV) These words Jesus spoke in the treasury, as He taught in the temple; and no one laid hands on Him, for His hour had not yet come.
(John 12:27 NKJV) “Now My soul is troubled, and what shall I say? ‘Father, save Me from this hour’? But for this purpose I came to this hour.
(See also John 2:4; 12:23; John 13:1)

:14 He sat down

He sat downanapipto – to lie back; to recline at a table

Jesus isn’t sitting in a chair at a table, He’s reclining at a table.

In the ancient world, the table would be low to the ground, and the guests would lie on their left side and eat with their right hand.

In case you’re curious, Jesus is reclining in the host’s spot, John is reclining on Jesus’ right (leaning against Jesus’ breast at times), and Judas is on Jesus’ left.

:14 the twelve apostles with Him

There is a little bit of a debate as to how long Judas Iscariot was at the Last Supper.  I think I’ve said that before that he left before “communion”.  Not so sure now.

The real reason this is an issue has to do with the meaning of communion, what taking communion does for you, and whether or not Judas partook of it.

:15 Then He said to them, “With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer;

:16 for I say to you, I will no longer eat of it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God.”

:15 With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover

Literally, “with desire I have desired”.

The Passover Feast was an annual feast celebrated by the Jews ever since the day that God delivered them from slavery in Egypt.

On the night of the very first Passover, God warned that the angel of death was going to go through the land of Egypt and kill all the firstborn children.
The only way for your firstborn children to survive would be to slaughter lamb and sprinkle its blood on the doorposts of your house.
If the angel of death saw the lamb’s blood, it would “pass over” that house.

Jesus’ Passover would be unlike any other.

In a way, the first Passover was prophetic, and spoke of a day when another Lamb would save His people.
This was the day, the “hour” Jesus had been aiming at His whole life.
This is when He as the “Lamb of God”, would be dying for the sins of the world.
And just as that first Passover would be remembered by a ritual, this Passover would be remembered with a ritual.

:15 eat this Passover with you before I suffer

Passoverpascha – the Passover sacrifice.

This is a word derived from the Hebrew word pecach, which is the actual Hebrew word for “Passover”.

I sufferpascho – to be affected; to suffer sadly

These words are seemingly unrelated, they seem very, very similar.  I wonder if Jesus’ usage of both these words in the same sentence isn’t drawing out the fact that the pascha was the time for His pascho.  The Passover was the time for His suffering.
In fact, not just that He is about to suffer.  But that He MUST suffer at the pascha, or the pesach.

fulfilledpleroo – to make full, to fill up, i.e. to fill to the full; to render full, i.e. to complete; to make complete in every particular, to render perfect; to carry through to the end, to accomplish, carry out, (some undertaking)

:16 until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God

Jesus is saying that the next time He will be eating the Passover will be after the kingdom of God has fully come on the earth.

Paul wrote,

(1 Corinthians 11:26 NKJV) For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death till He comes.

:17 Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves;

He tookdechomai – to take with the hand; to take up, receive; to receive, get

the cuppoterion – a cup, a drinking vessel

gave thanks eucharisteo – to be grateful, feel thankful; give thanks

This is where the word “Eucharist” comes from.

take thislambano – to take; to receive (what is given), to gain, get, obtain, to get back

divide itdiamerizo – to cleave asunder, cut in pieces; to be divided into opposing parts, to be at variance, in dissension; to distribute

:18 for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.”

drinkpino – to drink; figuratively, to receive into the soul what serves to refresh strengthen, nourish it unto life eternal

the fruitgennema – that which has been born or begotten; the offspring or progeny of men or animals; the fruits of the earth, the produce of agriculture

the vineampelos – a vine

:17 Then He took the cup

The Passover Feast

Over time, the Passover feast has become an elaborate ritual.
I’m not sure exactly what the feast looked like in Jesus’ day, nor the exact order because it changed after the destruction of the Temple, and lambs were no longer slain.
Here are some of the main elements:
In today’s modern Pesach (Passover), there are four cups of wine involved.
The first cup is called the cup of sanctification, and it might be that this is what Jesus was doing here.
This is NOT our communion cup.
At one point, bitter herbs were eaten to remind the family of the bitterness of their bondage in Egypt.
In today’s Pesach, there are three loaves of unleavened bread kept in cloth pouches.
This middle loaf, called the Aphiqomon, may have been the bread of communion.
The middle loaf is broken and half is eaten during the meal, half hidden for afterwards.
There would be a second cup of wine, the cup of plagues.
The kids were to ask questions of dad, and the family would talk about the history of the Passover (Ex. 12:26)
 (Exodus 12:26 NKJV) And it shall be, when your children say to you, ‘What do you mean by this service?’
A song of praise was sung from the Hallel or “Praise” psalms (Ps. 113-118)
At some point the lamb was eaten, but this practice was not done after the Temple was destroyed.
Then came the third cup of wine, the cup of redemption.
Paul called this the “cup of blessing”
(1 Corinthians 10:16 NKJV) The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ?

This may have been what we call our “communion” cup.

There was a fourth cup of wine, the cup of praise.

We’ll back up now to the unleavened bread…

22:19-20 Communion

:19 And He took bread, gave thanks and broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is My body which is given for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”

He tooklambano – to take; to receive (what is given), to gain, get, obtain, to get back

breadartos – food composed of flour mixed with water and baked; food of any kind

broke it klao – to break; used in the NT of the breaking of bread or communion.  It is always used to describe breaking bread in the NT

:19 gave thanks

gave thankseucharisteo (“good” + “grace”) – to be grateful, feel thankful; give thanks

This is a practice that some call “saying grace” before a meal.

The word “Eucharist” comes straight from this word.

This is the term that many people use for communion.

:19 This is My body


Real Communion

A lot of church splits and wars have been fought over what these four words mean.
When Jerome translated the New Testament into Latin, the words came out like this:
hoc est corpus meum

Some have suggested these words were garbled and became the origin of the phrase “hocus pocus”.

The word for “is” is…
eimi – to be, to exist, to happen, to be present

Present active indicative

Even though this word is used to mean something exact and equivalent (ie. “This is my finger”), it can also be used figuratively.

The same word (eimi) is used by Jesus in these ways:

(John 8:12 NKJV) Then Jesus spoke to them again, saying, “I am the light of the world. He who follows Me shall not walk in darkness, but have the light of life.”

Did Jesus become a lightbulb?

(John 10:7 NKJV) Then Jesus said to them again, “Most assuredly, I say to you, I am the door of the sheep.

Did Jesus literally become a slab of wood on a hinge?

(John 10:11 NKJV) “I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd gives His life for the sheep.

Did the disciples have to push literal sheep out of the way in order to hear Jesus teach?

(John 15:1 NKJV) “I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser.

Does Jesus mean that He is literally becoming a plant? (other examples – John 8:12; 10:11)

When Jesus says that the bread is His “body”, does it mean that the piece of bread becomes the actual, literal body and flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ, as some churches teach?
If when the priest says those magic words, hoc est corpus meum, and the bread becomes transformed into the actual, literal flesh of Jesus, what about when Jesus Himself said those words on that night?

Did the piece of bread become His actual flesh while He was still reclining at the table with the disciples?

This rare and wonderful footage is from 1957:
Video:  BBC – Spaghetti Harvest in Ticino.
That was a famous BBC April Fool’s Day hoax.  Many people fell for it back in the day and even wanted to know how to start their own Spaghetti orchard.  The BBC told people to “Place a sprig of spaghetti in a tin of tomato sauce and hope for the best.”
Just because you want something to be true doesn’t mean it is. Spaghetti doesn’t grow on trees, and a priest’s words do not turn bread into the literal flesh of Jesus.

Two nuns were driving down a country road when they ran out of gas. They walked to a farmhouse and a farmer gave them some gasoline; but the only container he had was an old bedpan. The nuns were happy to take whatever they were offered and returned to their car.

As they were pouring the gasoline from the bedpan into the tank of their car, a man drove by. He stopped, rolled down his window and said, “Excuse me, sisters. I’m not of your religion, but I couldn’t help admiring your faith!

The standard Jewish words spoken over the Passover Bread were something like this:

“This is the bread of affliction our ancestors ate when they came from Egypt.”

Did they believe that the bread transformed into the actual bread eaten by their ancestors when they came out of Egypt?

No.  It was a representation of that bread.  It reminded them of that bread.

We believe that Jesus is speaking figuratively here.

We believe that the bread is still bread, and the grape juice is still grape juice.

How real?
The Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches believe that when an ordained priest says the special words of consecration, that the bread and wine literally become the actual, physical body and blood of Jesus Christ.  This doctrine is called transubstantiation.
At the Reformation, Martin Luther rejected the notion that the elements became the literal body and blood of Jesus, but that Jesus’ presence was still very real, being “in, with, and under” the elements of communion.
Others hold to a “spiritual” presence of God being involved in communion and that it is a means of spiritual nourishment and growth in grace.

That’s a little closer to where we would land.

The bread and grape juice are still bread and grape juice.

Yet because we are remembering and honoring Jesus Christ, He is certainly present in our fellowship as we celebrate what He did for us.

What you believe about this affects how you believe a person can be saved, how to make it to heaven.
We believe that we are saved by the work of Christ on the cross when He paid for our sins.

He died as a sacrifice for our sins, dying in our place, taking the penalty for our sins.

The death of Christ for us is God’s gift, God’s grace for us.

We didn’t do anything to deserve it.  It is a free gift of God for mankind.

This gift of God is available for all who will believe in Jesus.

Paul summarized it like this,

(Ephesians 2:8–9 NKJV) —8 For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, 9 not of works, lest anyone should boast.

But listen to how some churches have twisted this over the centuries.

Churches like the Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholic church believe that we are saved by grace, but that “grace” is only received through the sacraments of the church – rituals like Eucharist, infant baptism, anointing with oil, etc, are ways in which grace is imparted to the person.

Sacerdotal (“priestly”)

On February 27, AD 380, in his edict of Thessalonica, the emperor Theodotius decreed that everyone in the Roman Empire was to become a Christian, and he banned paganism.

There was a flood of pagans who “converted” to the faith.  The church began to adopt the practices of paganism into the church at this time, perhaps trying to help these new “converts” feel at home.

Up to this point, pastors were just considered ordinary people, wearing ordinary clothes, and no different than any other believer.

By the 6th century, that changed, and pastors were starting to be considered as “better” than the people.  They began to wear fancy robes.  They considered themselves the only bridge between God and the people.

They started calling themselves “priests”, which means a “bridge” between God and men.

By the 7th century, sacerdotalism in communion began to appear.

They still considered that a person was saved by grace through faith, but they believed that grace was only received through the sacraments, and the thing that made the sacraments impart grace was the “faith” of the priest.

They taught that it was the “faith” of the priest that magically turned the bread into the body of Christ.

They also began to teach that rather than communion being a remembrance of Jesus’ death, it became an actual reenactment of Christ’s death, and the priest was offering up the sacrifice of Christ for the people.

Yet the Scripture says there is not more need for sacrifice.

(Hebrews 10:12 NKJV) But this Man, after He had offered one sacrifice for sins forever, sat down at the right hand of God,

Yet we’ve seen over and over again where Jesus told someone, “Your faith has saved you” (not your priest’s faith)

The problem with all of this is that God doesn’t think you need a priest to get you right with God because that’s something that Jesus has already taken care of, being our Great High Priest.

(1 Timothy 2:5–6 NKJV) —5 For there is one God and one Mediator between God and men, the Man Christ Jesus, 6 who gave Himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time,

God’s grace is available to you at anytime, without a “priest”.

You don’t need to keep taking communion to be saved, you are saved by believing in Jesus.

You can even have communion any time.  You don’t need a priest to say magic words.

You just need bread, wine (or grape juice), and Jesus.

:19 My body which is given for you

bodysoma – the body both of men or animals; is used of a (large or small) number of men closely united into one society, or family as it were; a social, ethical, mystical body

is givendidomi – to give; to give something to someone

forhuper – in behalf of, for the sake of

His body was given on behalf of us.
He died in our place.


Healing for us

The bread would represent His body, and the loaf was broken before He passed it out for the disciples to eat.
Paul wrote,
(1 Corinthians 11:24 NKJV) and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “Take, eat; this is My body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”
Even though there weren’t any bones broken in Jesus at His death (to fulfill the Passover Lamb picture), His body was broken, especially when He was whipped or scourged.
(Isaiah 53:5 NKJV) But He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our iniquities; The chastisement for our peace was upon Him, And by His stripes we are healed.

Jesus took the punishment that was meant for our sins so we wouldn’t have to.

The “healing” spoken of here is both spiritual and physical.

Sometimes our afflictions are tied to sin.

Mental anguish and some physical ailments may be related to things we have done in rebellion against God.

James wrote,

(James 5:14–16 NKJV) —14 Is anyone among you sick? Let him call for the elders of the church, and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord. 15 And the prayer of faith will save the sick, and the Lord will raise him up. And if he has committed sins, he will be forgiven. 16 Confess your trespasses to one another, and pray for one another, that you may be healed. The effective, fervent prayer of a righteous man avails much.

Don’t be afraid to ask for healing.  God heals today.  Jesus has provided for it.

:19 do this in remembrance of Me

remembrance anamnesis – a remembering, recollection

Just as the Jews celebrated the Passover to remember what God had done, we too celebrate Communion to remember what God has done.

Communion is an opportunity to draw near to God and experience His presence in a fresh way, but not because of a priest’s faith, but yours.

Paul reiterated it like this:

(1 Corinthians 11:23–25 NKJV) —23 For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you: that the Lord Jesus on the same night in which He was betrayed took bread; 24 and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “Take, eat; this is My body which is broken for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” 25 In the same manner He also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.”

Two Sacraments

Prior to the 6th century, there were only two “sacraments”, two special ceremonies that the early church practiced.

Baptism and Communion

After the 6th century, the church added five more sacraments, or special ceremonies.

We believe that for a ceremony to be special and practiced by the church it needs to meet three qualifications:

It needs to have been practiced by Jesus.
It needs to have been practiced by the early church in the book of Acts.
It needs to have been mentioned in the letters of the apostles.

It is interesting that Jesus’ ministry began with the first sacrament, His baptism.

His earthly ministry ends with the second sacrament, communion.

:20 Likewise He also took the cup after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood, which is shed for you.

forhuper – in behalf of, for the sake of

in the place of?? huper

likewisehosautos – in like manner, likewise

the cuppoterion – a cup, a drinking vessel

supper deipneo – to sup; especially a formal meal usually held at the evening

covenant diatheke – a disposition, arrangement, of any sort, which one wishes to be valid, the last disposition which one makes of his earthly possessions after his death, a testament or will; a compact, a covenant, a testament

:20 He also took the cup after supper

This seems most likely that “third” cup of wine, the cup of “redemption” called by Paul the “cup of blessing”.

:20 This cup is…

Your view of communion affects how you view the cup of “wine” (or, in our case, grape juice).

If you believe that the wine magically transforms into the actual blood of Christ, and that drinking it gives you actual grace that leads to eternal life, you might even believe that there could be something magical about the actual cup that Jesus used.

That’s the whole idea behind the search for the “holy grail”, the “cup of Christ”.
It was thought that drinking from it would give you eternal life.
Video: Indiana Jones Choosing Wisely

:20 the new covenant in My blood


A New Contract

1400 years before Jesus, God made a contract with the nation of Israel through Moses.
We call it the Mosaic Covenant.  It’s all about keeping the Law.

God promises to bless His people if they will keep His Law.

Another word for “covenant” is “testament”, as in the “Old Testament” and “New Testament”.

The Old Testament is about what God for Israel with the Law of Moses.

The New Testament is about what God has done through the grace of Jesus.

God said that one day He would make a new agreement, a new covenant.
600 years before Jesus, Jeremiah recorded God’s promise of a New Covenant.
(Jeremiah 31:31–34 NKJV) —31 “Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah—32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the Lord.

The Old Covenant started with God getting Israel out of Egypt.

What was the event that got them out of Egypt?  The Passover.

The New Covenant starts with the same celebration.

33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord: I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34 No more shall every man teach his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, ‘Know the Lord,’ for they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says the Lord. For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.”

The New Covenant is all about what God does on the inside of man, not what man does on the outside for God.

God writes His laws on our hearts instead of stone tablets.

People will actually know God, and He will forgive their sin.

The Old Covenant was “sealed” with blood.
It’s like the signing of a contract.

(Exodus 24:8 NKJV) And Moses took the blood, sprinkled it on the people, and said, “This is the blood of the covenant which the Lord has made with you according to all these words.”

This made the agreement binding.  The people were sprinkled with blood.

The New Covenant is also sealed with blood. 
The cup reminds us that Jesus’ blood sealed the New Covenant.

:20 which is shed for you

forhuper – in behalf of, for the sake of

is shedekcheo – to pour out, shed forth; metaph. to bestow or distribute largely


Complete Forgiveness

God told Israel back in the days of Moses that blood was to be used for a specific sacrificial function.
(Leviticus 17:11 NKJV) For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that makes atonement for the soul.’

When you sacrifice an animal, it’s blood is poured out as a demonstration that the animal is giving its life for you.

Jesus shed His blood, poured out His life, to pay for your sins.
John tells us how many sins Jesus’ blood can pay for.

(1 John 1:7 NKJV) But if we walk in the light as He is in the light, we have fellowship with one another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from all sin.

Are you struggling with condemnation?
The cup we share in communion reminds us that Jesus’ blood can cleanse us from all sin.
Open your heart to Jesus and you will find that God will forgive you of ALL your sin.
Some of you will need to rethink the condemnation that you live under.  Is Jesus’ blood enough to pay for your sin?

Yes it is.