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Luke 21:20-28

Sunday Morning Bible Study

March 5, 2017


Do people see Jesus? Is the gospel preached? Does it address the person who is: Empty, lonely, guilty, or afraid to die?  Does it speak to the broken hearted? Does it build up the church? Milk – Meat – Manna Preach for a decision Is the church loved? Regular:  2900 words    Communion: 2500 words  Video=75wpm

I have a public service announcement.

Video:  The Time Change Troll

Home Fellowships – We are hoping to launch a couple of Home Fellowships in a few weeks.

First we are looking to find a few folks who would be willing to host and lead the groups of no more than twelve people.

We are thinking of the groups meeting weekly for six weeks.

We are thinking there ought to be some sort of food/snacks involved.

These are not Bible Studies, but times to share and connect with each other.
We want the sharing time to be about the Sunday message – and we will provide you with discussion questions.
We want there to be time spent praying for each other.

If you are interested in leading a group – we will have an info meeting next Sunday after each service.  Or, contact myself or Daniel Grant.

Luke was a doctor and a travelling companion of the apostle Paul.

He wrote this book while Paul was in prison.

In writing this book about Jesus, Luke made use of other older documents like the Gospel of Mark, as well as extensive eyewitness accounts.

Jesus’ ministry is well under way, and the people have been amazed not just at the things He’s been teaching, but the things He’s been doing.

We are now on the homestretch of Jesus’ ministry.

Jesus is now in Jerusalem, on His way to be crucified.

Luke has reminded us of what Jesus’ main purpose was in life:

(Luke 19:10 NKJV) for the Son of Man has come to seek and to save that which was lost.”

We saw Jesus arrive in Jerusalem on a Sunday, to the shouts of an adoring crowd, crying “Hosanna”.

The next morning, on Monday, Jesus came into the Temple and cleared out those who were ripping the people off.

He then began to teach in the Temple, as He would every day until He would be arrested.

Last week, when some were showing admiration of the great Temple stones, Jesus said that there was a day coming when not one stone would be left standing on the Temple Mount.

When asked when this would happen, Jesus began to teach about the kinds of signs that would warn of two coming events:
The destruction of the Temple.
His Second Coming

It’s not unusual for prophecies in Scripture to have double fulfillments.

We’re going to navigate our way through a passage that will reflect both events.
I will use black blocks on the screen for the Temple Destruction, and bright red blocks for the Second Coming.
We were talking just last Thursday in our study of Psalm 118, how more than a few prophecies have two fulfillments – one near and one far.
There was a prophesied “forerunner” who would prepare the people for the Messiah’s coming.
The prophecy was fulfilled in John the Baptist, but will also one day be fulfilled by the prophet Elijah coming back.
We saw on Thursday night that some of the events laid out prophetically in Psalm 118 also would have two fulfillments.
“Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord” was partially fulfilled when Jesus entered Jerusalem and the people shouted this.
Jesus said there would be another time when the people would shout this, at His Second Coming.

21:20-28 Signs of His Coming pt.2

:20 “But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation is near.

surroundedkukloo – to go around, lead around; to surround, encircle, encompass

is neareggizo – to bring near, to join one thing to another; to draw or come near to, to approach

desolationeremosis – a making desolate, desolation

fromeremos – solitary, lonely, desolate, uninhabited; a desert, wilderness

:20 Jerusalem surrounded by armies

armiesstratopedon – a military camp; soldiers in camp, an army

One of the places we visit in Israel is the fortress of Masada which sits on top of a mountain 1500 feet above the desert floor at the Dead Sea.
When Jerusalem was about to fall to the Romans, a group of Jewish refugees fled east toward the Dead Sea and made a home high up in the desert fortress of Masada, built by King Herod as a winter palace.
Masada itself would eventually be surrounded by the Roman armies, and you can still see some of the remnants of their military camps around the base of the fortress.

:21 Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains, let those who are in the midst of her depart, and let not those who are in the country enter her.

:21 let those who are in the midst of her depart

departekchoreo (“out of” + “country”) – to depart from; to remove from in the sense of fleeing from

from chora – the space lying between two places or limits; a region or country i.e. a tract of land

Or literally, “leave the country”

fleepheugo – to flee away, seek safety by flight

Present active imperative

mountainsoros – a mountain

countrychora – the space lying between two places or limits; a region or country i.e. a tract of land

entereiserchomai – to go out or come in: to enter

If we are planning a trip to visit Israel, and Jerusalem is either surrounded by armies, or the “abomination of desolation” takes place, then we would probably cancel the trip.

:21 flee to the mountains

This is one of those prophecies that has two fulfillments.

When Rome laid siege to Jerusalem in AD 70, the Christians fled to Pella.

Video:  Jerusalem to Pella
Eusebius, writing in the 4th century, recorded that before the siege of Jerusalem took place, the church in Jerusalem received a prophecy that they were to flee the city, and they moved as a group to the city of Pella, just across the Jordan, south of the Sea of Galilee.

3 But the people of the church in Jerusalem had been commanded by a revelation, vouchsafed to approved men there before the war, to leave the city and to dwell in a certain town of Perea called Pella.[1]

The remaining Jews in Jerusalem looked at the fleeing Jewish Christians as traitors, and from this point on, Judaism no longer looked at Christianity as some sort of reform sect of Judaism, but as a completely different religion.
What happened to the Jews still in Jerusalem?
A group of 1,000 fled to Masada where they held out against the Romans for three years before they all committed suicide to keep from being captured and turned into slaves.
Rome took 100,000 Jews captive. 
Over one million were killed.
Rome killed 1,100,000 Jews and took 97,000 captive.

When Jerusalem is surrounded in the Tribulation period, the Jews will flee to Petra.

Zechariah records the siege:
(Zechariah 14:2 NKJV) For I will gather all the nations to battle against Jerusalem; The city shall be taken, The houses rifled, And the women ravished. Half of the city shall go into captivity, But the remnant of the people shall not be cut off from the city.

Zechariah records that instead of Jerusalem being destroyed, it will be rescued.

There are some people who will want to tell you that all the things Jesus is predicting were fulfilled at the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.

Yet this has not yet been fulfilled.  Jesus has not yet returned with His “saints” to rescue Jerusalem.

John speaks prophetically of this event in the Revelation, written after the fall of Jerusalem:
(Revelation 12:6 NKJV) Then the woman fled into the wilderness, where she has a place prepared by God, that they should feed her there one thousand two hundred and sixty days.
We think that one of the places in the “mountains” where the Jews in the Tribulation will flee to is the ancient city of Petra. (Is. 16:1-4)
(Isaiah 16:1–4 NKJV) —1 Send the lamb to the ruler of the land, From Sela to the wilderness, To the mount of the daughter of Zion. 2 For it shall be as a wandering bird thrown out of the nest; So shall be the daughters of Moab at the fords of the Arnon. 3 “Take counsel, execute judgment; Make your shadow like the night in the middle of the day; Hide the outcasts, Do not betray him who escapes. 4 Let My outcasts dwell with you, O Moab; Be a shelter to them from the face of the spoiler. For the extortioner is at an end, Devastation ceases, The oppressors are consumed out of the land.

Matthew records Jesus mentioning another trigger to “flee”.

(Matthew 24:15–16 NKJV) —15 “Therefore when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place” (whoever reads, let him understand), 16 “then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains.
Matthew is written to a more Jewish audience, while Luke is writing to a wider Gentile audience.
The Jewish audience will recognize the reference to Daniel, while Luke’s audience will not.
We’ll see in a minute the prophecy in Daniel about this “abomination”. (Dan. 9:27)
The “abomination” Daniel spoke of is about something that the antichrist will do in the middle of the seven year Tribulation period.

(Daniel 9:27b NKJV) …And on the wing of abominations shall be one who makes desolate…

Paul tells us that this “abomination” will be the antichrist claiming to be “god”:

(2 Thessalonians 2:4 NKJV) who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.

If you happen to be living in Jerusalem when something like this happens, run.

:22 For these are the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.

be fulfilledpletho – to fill; to be fulfilled, to be filled

aorist passive infinitive

are writtengrapho – to write, with reference to the form of the letters; with reference to the contents of the writing; used of those things which stand written in the sacred books (of the OT)

:22 these are the days of vengeance

vengeanceekdikesis – a revenging, vengeance, punishment

Vengeance speak about getting even, but about making wrongs right.

The word also has the sense of acquittal and carries the sense of vindication. (Vincent III, p. 329)

There is a sense in which the destruction of Jerusalem was God’s 40-year delayed judgment for the rejection and death of His Son.

The time period known as the Tribulation is also a time of “vengeance”, judgment, or the “wrath of the Lamb” (Rev. 6:16-17)

(Revelation 6:16–17 NKJV) —16 and said to the mountains and rocks, “Fall on us and hide us from the face of Him who sits on the throne and from the wrath of the Lamb! 17 For the great day of His wrath has come, and who is able to stand?”
It is a time during which God pours out punishment on a wicked, unbelieving world.

:23 But woe to those who are pregnant and to those who are nursing babies in those days! For there will be great distress in the land and wrath upon this people.

woeouai – alas, woe

who are pregnant – literally, “those having in the womb”

fromgaster – the belly; the womb; the stomach

nursing babiesthelazo (“the nipple”) – to give the breast, give suck, to suckle

distressanagke – necessity; calamity, distress, straits

greatmegas – great

landge – arable land; the ground, the earth as a standing place; the earth as a whole; a country, land enclosed within fixed boundaries

wrathorge – anger; wrath, indignation; anger exhibited in punishment, hence used for punishment itself

peoplelaos – a people, people group, tribe, nation, all those who are of the same stock and language; of a great part of the population gathered together anywhere

A word usually limited in use to the chosen people, Israel.

:24 And they will fall by the edge of the sword, and be led away captive into all nations. And Jerusalem will be trampled by Gentiles until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled.

led away captiveaichmalotizo – to lead away captive

nationsethnos – a tribe, nation, people group; in the OT, foreign nations not worshipping the true God, pagans, Gentiles

trampledpateo – to tread; to trample, crush with the feet; to tread under foot, trample on, i.e. to treat with insult and contempt: to desecrate the holy city by devastation and outrage

are fulfilledpleroo – to make full, to fill up, i.e. to fill to the full; to render full, i.e. to complete; to consummate: a number; of sayings, promises, prophecies, to bring to pass, ratify, accomplish

Gentilesethnos – a tribe, nation, people group; in the OT, foreign nations not worshipping the true God, pagans, Gentiles

Same word translated “nations”.

:24 until the times of the Gentiles are fulfilled

This concept of the “times of the Gentiles” will fill in the time between the destruction of Jerusalem until the days of the Second Coming.

The destruction of Jerusalem would usher in a period of time on earth known as the “times of the Gentiles”, and that Jerusalem will be under Gentile control until these times are “fulfilled”.

I’d like to suggest that these “times of the Gentiles” will be a key to what ushers in His Second Coming.

I believe this is talking about God’s timeclock with the nation of Israel.

We’ve talked recently about Daniel’s prophecy known as the “Seventy weeks” (Luke 19:42, Ps. 118:24). 
(Luke 19:42 NKJV) —42 saying, “If you had known, even you, especially in this your day, the things that make for your peace! But now they are hidden from your eyes.
(Psalm 118:24 NKJV) —24 This is the day the Lord has made; We will rejoice and be glad in it.
These “seventy weeks” were a period of seventy groups of seven (490) years, and were intended for a specific purpose:
(Daniel 9:24–27 NKJV) —24 “Seventy weeks are determined For your people and for your holy city, To finish the transgression, To make an end of sins, To make reconciliation for iniquity, To bring in everlasting righteousness, To seal up vision and prophecy, And to anoint the Most Holy.

The seventy weeks are a special time on God’s calendar meant for the Jewish people, Daniel’s people.

25 “Know therefore and understand, That from the going forth of the command To restore and build Jerusalem Until Messiah the Prince, There shall be seven weeks and sixty-two weeks; The street shall be built again, and the wall, Even in troublesome times. 26 “And after the sixty-two weeks Messiah shall be cut off, but not for Himself; And the people of the prince who is to come Shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. The end of it shall be with a flood, And till the end of the war desolations are determined.

We’ve talked about how this prophecy gave us the actual date of the Messiah’s arrival on Palm Sunday.

The “people of the prince who is to come” are the Romans, who destroyed Jerusalem.

Daniel said that after 69 of these “weeks”, the Messiah would be “cut off”.  This not only is speaking of Jesus being crucified for our sins, but that God’s timeclock for Israel stopped one week short.

This began the period known as the “times of the Gentiles”.

It is not until the “times of the Gentiles” is finished, that God will once again start His timeclock and finish that last “seventieth week” with a focus on the Jews.

Paul talked about the “fullness” of the Gentiles in another way:

(Romans 11:25–26 NKJV) —25 For I do not desire, brethren, that you should be ignorant of this mystery, lest you should be wise in your own opinion, that blindness in part has happened to Israel until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in. 26 And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written: The Deliverer will come out of Zion, And He will turn away ungodliness from Jacob;

I think that God has a “number” in mind when it comes to Gentiles being saved.  When that number is reached, the “fullness” of the Gentiles will have occurred.

At that point, God will restart His timeclock with Israel, salvation will come on Israel, God will start working through Israel, and that last “week” of Daniel’s seventy will start.

That last “week” is what we refer to as the Great Tribulation.

I also believe this “fullness of the Gentiles” results in the Rapture. I’ll let this fellow explain what the Rapture is:

Video:  Rapture

I believe the Rapture will occur before the Tribulation because God will be working through the Jews, and no longer the Gentile church.

Go back to Daniel 9 …

27 Then he shall confirm a covenant with many for one week; But in the middle of the week He shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering. And on the wing of abominations shall be one who makes desolate, Even until the consummation, which is determined, Is poured out on the desolate.”

This last week, seven years, is the Tribulation.

The antichrist will form a treaty with Israel, the temple being rebuilt, and the antichrist will cause the sacrifices to stop and declare himself to be God. 

This is when Jesus said that the Jews were to head for the hills.

If you are here when that happens, then count off 1260 days, or 3 ½ years, because Jesus will come back.

How is it that Jesus said you don’t know the day or hour of His return, and yet we can predict the day from the abomination of desolation?

It’s the Rapture that’s unpredictable and sudden, not His Second Coming.

I also believe that this fulfilling of the “times of the Gentiles” will coincide with the Rapture of the church.

I do not believe the Gentile church will be going through the Great Tribulation.
God’s timeclock with Israel will be restarted and God will once again be working through Israel, not the Gentile church.
The Great Tribulation will be a time of God’s wrath on the earth, yet Paul wrote,
(1 Thessalonians 5:9 NKJV) For God did not appoint us to wrath, but to obtain salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ,
There will be aspects of the Second Coming that will be able to be predicted down to the day, such as the day that Jesus actually returns to the earth.
He will return 1260 days after the abomination of desolation.
Yet there are some aspects of the Second Coming that will happen suddenly and without warning.
The Rapture of the church is in that category.  We do not know the day or the hour.

:24 Jerusalem will be trampled by Gentiles

Is Jerusalem currently being “trampled” by the Gentiles?  Here are some thoughts:

After the Six-day war in 1967, the Jews took over all of Jerusalem from the Gentiles.
Some have suggested that the “Times of the Gentiles” is over.  Could be.
It might refer to the world recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
President Trump has said he will move the American embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem.
It could refer to the Temple Mount.
The Temple Mount is still under the control of the Jerusalem Islamic Waqf, which is funded and controlled by the nation of Jordan.

:25 “And there will be signs in the sun, in the moon, and in the stars; and on the earth distress of nations, with perplexity, the sea and the waves roaring;

:26 men’s hearts failing them from fear and the expectation of those things which are coming on the earth, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.

:25 signs in the sun, moon, stars

signssemeion – a sign, prodigy, portent, i.e. an unusual occurrence, transcending the common course of nature

sunhelios – the sun

moonselene – the moon

starsastron – a group of stars, a constellation; a star

These are things specific to the Tribulation, not the destruction of Jerusalem.

(Revelation 6:12b–13 NKJV) —12 …the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became like blood. 13 And the stars of heaven fell to the earth, as a fig tree drops its late figs when it is shaken by a mighty wind.

roaringecheo – to sound; used of the roaring of the sea

seathalassa – the sea; used of the sea in general; used specifically of the Mediterranean Sea or the Red Sea

wavessalos – the tossing or swell of the sea

:26 men’s hearts failing them from fear

hearts failing themapopsucho (“away from” + “breath, soul”) – to breathe out life, expire; to faint or swoon away

The Greek word here carries the idea of your breath being taken away.

(Luke 21:26 HCSB) People will faint from fear and expectation of the things that are coming on the world…

How many of you have actually read about the events in the book of Revelation?

You can imagine why people will faint from fear.
Do you remember reading about things like…
Fire and hail burning up all vegetation (Rev. 8:7)
Scary strange locust like creatures with a poisonous sting (Rev. 9)
The antichrist demanding to be worshipped (Rev. 13:8)
The battle of Armageddon (Rev. 16:16).
Can you understand why people’s hearts might faint from fear?

fearphobos – fear, dread, terror

expectationprosdokia (“toward” + “to watch”) – expectation (whether good or evil)

coming oneperchomai – to come to arrive; to come upon, overtake, one

earthoikoumene – the inhabited earth

powersdunamis – strength power, ability

will be shakensaleuo – a motion produced by winds, storms, waves, etc; to agitate or shake; to cause to totter

:25 distress of nations, with perplexity

earthge – arable land; the ground, the earth as a standing place; the main land as opposed to the sea or water; the earth as a whole

nationsethnos – a multitude (whether of men or of beasts) associated or together; in the OT, foreign nations not worshipping the true God, pagans, Gentiles

distresssunoche – a narrowing; the contracting part of a way

perplexityaporia – the state of one who is in perplexity

from aporeo – to be without resources, to be in straits, to be left wanting, to be embarrassed, to be in doubt, not to know which way to turn

The words “distress” and “perplexity” both speak of being in trouble like being in a “tight place”, like being between a rock and a hard place.


Fear and tight places

Jesus is talking about the days of the Tribulation being a “tight place” for the Jews.
Jesus said that people’s hearts will fail them because of the fear of the things happening during the Tribulation.
I don’t even have to think of the Tribulation to get caught in fear.

Former Hearse Driver

An American is in London for the first time. He’s in a taxi on his way to an appointment for which he is afraid he may be late, given the slow speed at which the driver is proceeding. In order to ask the driver about their progress, he leans forward and taps the older gentleman on the shoulder. The driver simultaneously emits a blood curdling scream and jumps straight up in the air, yanking the wheel to one side. The cab veers sharply, jumps the curb, demolishing a beautiful old cast iron lamppost and comes to a stop mere inches from a shop window. The startled but uninjured passenger asks, “Are you all right? I didn’t mean to frighten you. I just wanted to ask a question.” “Not your fault, guv’nor,” said the driver in a Cockney lilt, “I’m bright new to this taxi drivin’ I yam, an’ I’m not used to ‘avin’ comp’ny owin’ to my previous trade.” “I see,” said the passenger. “And what did you do previously?” The driver said, “Why for the past 25 years I was the best hearse driver in London, sir.”

Last Thursday night we saw the Psalmist use a Hebrew word that also talked about being in a “tight place”.
(Psalm 118:5 NKJV) I called on the Lord in distress; The Lord answered me and set me in a broad place.

The word for “distress” also speaks of being in a tight place.

Tight places are when you feel like the walls are closing in on you.

Video:  Star Wars – Trash Compactor Scene

There are lots of things in this life that “squeeze” us and make us fearful.

It might be a season when your finances are a bit “tight”.

I’ve been reminded this week that some of us can have a fear of “abandonment”, being afraid that people are going to leave us or turn their back on us.

It might be fear of illness, whether it’s something you’ve been diagnosed with, or something you’re just afraid you might get.

It might even be a fear of the end times.

The Psalmist reminds us to call on the Lord.
David wrote,

(Psalm 34:4 NKJV) I sought the Lord, and He heard me, And delivered me from all my fears.

God isn’t against you, He’s on your side.

(Romans 8:31 NKJV) What then shall we say to these things? If God is for us, who can be against us?

Paul wrote,

(Philippians 4:6–7 NKJV) —6 Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known to God; 7 and the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.

Take your fears to the Lord.  Pray.

:27 Then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory.

cloudnephele – a cloud

power – dunamis –strength power, ability

greatpolus – many, much, large

glorydoxa – glory, splendor, brightness

:27 see the Son of Man coming in a cloud

Luke recorded that after the resurrection, Jesus ascended into heaven into a cloud (Acts 1:9), and two angels said to the apostles,

(Acts 1:9 NKJV) —9 Now when He had spoken these things, while they watched, He was taken up, and a cloud received Him out of their sight.
(Acts 1:11 NKJV) …This same Jesus, who was taken up from you into heaven, will so come in like manner as you saw Him go into heaven.”

John recorded,

(Revelation 1:7 NKJV) Behold, He is coming with clouds, and every eye will see Him…

:28 Now when these things begin to happen, look up and lift up your heads, because your redemption draws near.”

beginarchomai – to be the first to do (anything), to begin; to begin, make a beginning

look upanakupto – to raise or lift one’s self up

lift upepairo – to lift up, raise up, raise on high

redemptionapolutrosis ( “from” + “ransom”) – a releasing effected by payment of ransom; redemption, deliverance; liberation procured by the payment of a ransom

draws neareggizo – to bring near, to join one thing to another; to draw or come near to, to approach

This is the second time Jesus uses this word in His teaching.

The first time was in verse 20, when He warned that Jerusalem’s “desolation” was “near”.

But this time it’s different.  Instead of “desolation”, it’s actually the “redemption” that’s near.

:28 look up and lift up your heads



You have a choice as to how you are going to respond to the increasing number of signs that Jesus is coming.
You can tremble with fear, or,
You can look up.

He’s coming in the clouds.

We’ll be heading to the clouds.

(1 Thessalonians 4:17 NKJV) Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord.

Paul wrote,

(Colossians 3:2 NKJV) Set your mind on things above, not on things on the earth.

Pastor Chuck once said this:
“Now, last October in one of the shopping malls, towards the end of October, I saw them putting them up Christmas decorations. And I said, “Well, Thanksgiving must be getting close.” Why? Because I know that Thanksgiving comes before Christmas. And if they’re putting up Christmas decorations and Thanksgiving hasn’t come yet, then Thanksgiving must be getting close. Because it’s got to come before Christmas.
“Now Jesus is giving you signs of His return. Signs that will happen before His second coming. But if the rapture of the church is to precede the second coming by seven years, then when we will see the signs of the coming of the Lord, we have to say, “Hey, the rapture must be getting close. I see the signs of the Lord’s return.” That makes the rapture that much closer. So, when you see these things beginning to come to pass, then you look up and lift up your head, for your redemption is drawing nigh.”
Are you ready for His return?
Are you ready for the Rapture?

Don’t be telling yourself that you’ll just wait to follow Jesus until after the Rapture happens.

If you think it’s hard to follow Jesus now, it will be almost impossible during the Tribulation.

Jesus died on a cross to pay for your sins and to save you from the wrath of God.

Let today be the day that you get right with God.

I have to confess that as much as I’ve come to enjoy missions’ trips, I really like coming home.
Last summer was a wonderful time watching God at work in both Alexi in Russia, as well Caleb in Hungary.  Yet at the end of my two weeks away, I was more than ready to make it back to LAX and see my sweetie at the gate.
Do you realize that you and I are currently away from “home”?
Heaven is where we were meant to be.
As we see things happening around us that remind us that Jesus is coming back, don’t forget that this means we are going to be home soon.

[1] Eusebius of Caesaria. (1890). The Church History of Eusebius. In P. Schaff & H. Wace (Eds.), A. C. McGiffert (Trans.), Eusebius: Church History, Life of Constantine the Great, and Oration in Praise of Constantine (Vol. 1, p. 138). New York: Christian Literature Company.