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Luke 14:12-24

Sunday Morning Bible Study

July 31, 2016


Do people see Jesus? Is the gospel preached? Does it address the person who is: Empty, lonely, guilty, or afraid to die?  Does it speak to the broken hearted? Does it build up the church? Milk – Meat – Manna Preach for a decision Is the church loved? Regular:  2900 words    Communion: 2500 words  Video=75wpm

Pray for Russia Trip

Luke was a doctor and a traveling companion of the apostle Paul.

He wrote this book while Paul was in prison.

In writing this book about Jesus, Luke made use of other older documents like the Gospel of Mark, as well as extensive eyewitness accounts.

Jesus’ ministry is well under way, and the people have been amazed not just at the things He’s been teaching, but the things He’s been doing.

Jesus had been invited to a meal at the house of one of the chief Pharisees. While He is there, a series of things happen and Jesus uses this dinner to bring help and instruction.

While He was there, a man with a disease called “dropsy” (or, edema) showed up. Even though it was the Sabbath, Jesus healed the man.

Jesus also talked to the guests at the party. They had been pushing and shoving to get the best seats at the table, and Jesus teaches them that the best thing to do is the humble thing, to take the last seat.

As Jesus has talked about humility, He continues to use this dinner party…

14:12-14 Gracious Invitations

:12 Then He also said to him who invited Him, “When you give a dinner or a supper, do not ask your friends, your brothers, your relatives, nor rich neighbors, lest they also invite you back, and you be repaid.

:12 He also said to him who invited Him

who invited kaleo – to call; to invite

This is the man who is hosting the meal, a “ruler of the Pharisees” (14:1)

Jesus is going to give this important man some tips on the next time he sets up a dinner party.

:12 a dinner or a supper

dinnerariston – the first food taken early in the morning before work, breakfast; later usage: dinner

supper deipnon – supper, especially a formal meal usually held at the evening,

new translations (NAS, NIV) – “luncheon or dinner

It could actually be translated, “a breakfast or a supper”

do not askphoneo – to sound, emit a sound, to speak; to call, to call one’s self, either by one’s own voice or through another; to send for, summon

friendsphilos – friend, to be friendly to one, wish him well

relativessuggenes – of the same kin, akin to, related by blood; in a wider sense, of the same nation, a fellow countryman

neighborsgeiton – a neighbor

richplousios – wealthy, abounding in material resources

invite you backantikaleo – to invite in turn

:12 and you be repaid

repaid antapodoma – the thing paid back, requital

These people, your friends and such, will always pay you back.

:13 But when you give a feast, invite the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind.

a feastdoche – a feast, banquet

invitekaleo – to call; to invite

the poorptochos – reduced to beggary, begging, asking alms; destitute of wealth, influence, position, honor

the maimedanaperos – disabled in the limbs, maimed, crippled; injured in, or bereft of, some member of the body

the lamecholos – lame; deprived of a foot, maimed

the blindtuphlos – blind; mentally blind

:14 And you will be blessed, because they cannot repay you; for you shall be repaid at the resurrection of the just.”

:14 they cannot repay you

Think about inviting people who are not able to pay you back for your invitation.

:14 you shall be repaid at the resurrection

When you get to heaven, you will be rewarded.

blessed makarios – blessed, happy

repay antapodidomi – in a good sense, to repay, requite; in a bad sense, penalty and vengeance

Who are these people? People who can’t return your favor. These are people you might not normally associate with.

resurrection anastasis – a raising up, rising (e.g. from a seat); a rising from the dead

Jesus is talking about heaven here.

justdikaios – righteous, observing divine laws; in a wide sense, upright, righteous, virtuous, keeping the commands of God; approved of or acceptable of God

:13 invite the poor, the maimed, the lame, the blind

These are people to focus on when you invite.

Note:  Can I make a request?  When you invite people like this, don’t just dump them on the church doorstep.  Take an active role in their lives.  More than once I’ve had people invite a troubled person to the church, only to expect that we do all the heavy lifting.  Don’t just invite, be a friend, help out.

Can’t I just spend time with my friend?

Of course.  Jesus spent time with His friends.
Just don’t think that it’s going to earn you any special rewards from the Lord when all you do is hang out with people who are “easy” to be with.
The problem is when we get to the point where all we ever do is spend time with people we’re comfortable with.


No Comfort Zone

In a way, Jesus has just demonstrated this to his host. Jesus had been invited to a dinner party, and for some, they might think that it’s time to relax and take it easy. But Jesus sees this man with dropsy and turns to heal the man.
From time to time in church we are blessed to have visitors who are a little different than others.
Some might have a different color of skin than you do.
Some have disabilities.
Some are homeless.
Some don’t smell very well.

How are you going to treat these people?  Are you going to treat them like Jesus wants to treat them?

Video:  OneTimeBlind - Comfort
These are the very people that God will in turn invite to His great Wedding Feast (14:21), so in a way, God is asking us to have the same heart that He has – a heart for the lost.

14:15-24 The Great Supper

:15 Now when one of those who sat at the table with Him heard these things, he said to Him, “Blessed is he who shall eat bread in the kingdom of God!”

:15 one of those who sat at the table

sat at the table withsunanakeimai – to recline together, feast together; of guests

One of the guys that Jesus has just addressed, one of the guys hearing these things responds.

:15 Blessed is he who shall eat bread in the kingdom of God!

blessedmakarios – blessed, happy

The guy is responding to what Jesus has just said, about being “blessed” in the resurrection if you are one who reaches out to others.

This guy has been thinking about it, and has this “wow” moment when he realizes how wonderful it will be to be in heaven.

Does everyone think it’s going to be great in heaven?

Jesus is going to address this.  When the rubber meets the road, there are many people who must not think heaven is all that great because of how they will respond to an invitation to heaven.

Jesus is going to tell a parable…

:16 Then He said to him, “A certain man gave a great supper and invited many,

supperdeipnon – supper, especially a formal meal usually held at the evening,

greatmegas – great

invitedkaleo – to call; to invite

:16 A certain man gave a great supper

The certain man is God, who is going to give a great dinner in heaven.

The supper was actually described 700 years earlier by the prophet Isaiah:

(Isaiah 25:6–9 NLT) —6 In Jerusalem, the Lord of Heaven’s Armies will spread a wonderful feast for all the people of the world. It will be a delicious banquet with clear, well-aged wine and choice meat. 7 There he will remove the cloud of gloom, the shadow of death that hangs over the earth. 8 He will swallow up death forever! The Sovereign Lord will wipe away all tears. He will remove forever all insults and mockery against his land and people. The Lord has spoken! 9 In that day the people will proclaim, “This is our God! We trusted in him, and he saved us! This is the Lord, in whom we trusted. Let us rejoice in the salvation he brings!”
This feast is intended to be for all people (Gentiles included).
The best part of the banquet will be that we will be with God face to face!!!

Keep in mind that Jesus is sitting with a bunch of Pharisees, the ultra-orthodox super-strict.  The Pharisees had some pretty strong opinions about this great supper of God.

Several centuries after Isaiah, the idea of Isaiah’s banquet began to change.
In the expanded Aramaic Old Testament translation called the “Targum”, Isaiah’s banquet looked like this:

Yahweh of hosts will make for all the peoples in this mountain a meal. And although they supposed it is an honor, it will be a shame for them and great plagues, plagues from which they will be unable to escape, plagues whereby they will come to their end.[1]

In the second century B.C., a document called The book of Enoch was written, and included a description of Isaiah’s banquet.

It said that while the Gentiles would be included in the banquet, the angel of death would show up, destroy all the Gentiles, and the banquet hall would run with blood.

When the Qumran community wrote the “Dead Sea Scrolls”, they were certain that no Gentiles would be present at the banquet, and only pious Jews would be allowed to attend.  Their writings said that …

no one can attend the banquet who is “smitten in his flesh, or paralyzed in his feet or hands, or lame, or blind or deaf or dumb or smitten in his flesh with a visible blemish.”[2]

Can you see how God’s original banquet idea has been obscured? (you can’t even see it on the screen…)
Instead of this banquet including many people from around the world, the Pharisees saw the banquet containing only a few, perfect, pious Jews.
We’re going to see Jesus challenge these very ideas.

:17 and sent his servant at supper time to say to those who were invited, ‘Come, for all things are now ready.’

sent apostello (“apostle”) – to order (one) to go to a place appointed; to send away, dismiss

servantdoulos – a slave, bondman, man of servile condition; this is the word that Paul often uses to describe himself.

time hora (“hour”) – a certain definite time or season fixed by natural law and returning with the revolving year; any definite time, point of time, moment

supperdeipnon – supper, especially a formal meal usually held at the evening

:17 say to those who were invited

First the initial invitees got the invitation, but now word is out that the actual event is about to take place.

It’s like you’ve been invited to a dinner party, and everyone is standing around chatting in the living room, maybe playing “Twister”, when word gets out that the food is on the table and it’s time to eat!

The “invited” to the Pharisee mind would be the nation of Israel, the ones who had already been “invited” to God’s heavenly supper through the Old Testament prophets.

In a way, the servant might represent Jesus and His apostles who were in the process of telling Israel that it’s time to come to God’s supper.
They were telling everyone that supper was ready.
In a way, the servant is a picture of all of us who follow Jesus.

:18 But they all with one accord began to make excuses. The first said to him, ‘I have bought a piece of ground, and I must go and see it. I ask you to have me excused.’

to make excuseparaiteomai – to ask along side, beg to have near one; to beg pardon, crave indulgence, to excuse

:18 I have bought a piece of ground

piece of groundagros – the field; a piece of land, bit of tillage

boughtagoradzo – to be in the market place, to attend it; to do business there, buy or sell

have me excusedparaiteomai – to ask along side, beg to have near one; to beg pardon, crave indulgence, to excuse

The guy is in the living room waiting for dinner, and suddenly decides that he needs to go visit this piece of property that he has already bought???

:19 And another said, ‘I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I am going to test them. I ask you to have me excused.’

:19 bought five yoke of oxen

yokezeugos – two draught cattle (horses or mules or oxen) yoked together; a pair

to testdokimazo – to test, examine, prove, scrutinize (to see whether a thing is genuine or not), as metals; to recognize as genuine after examination, to approve, deem worthy

Oxen are put into yokes by pairs, so this fellow owns 10 oxen.

This fellow has been standing in the living room waiting to eat when he suddenly remembers that he has just bought ten oxen and he wants to take them out for a test drive.

:20 Still another said, ‘I have married a wife, and therefore I cannot come.’

:20 I have married a wife

wifegune – a woman of any age, whether a virgin, or married, or a widow; a wife

marriedgameo – to lead in marriage, take to wife; to get married, to marry

This guy too is standing in the living room (he was playing Twister – the silly picture) waiting to eat, and suddenly remembers his wife at home.

This excuse can even be justified to an extent.
God gave Jewish men an excuse when it came time to sign up for military duty.
(Deuteronomy 24:5 NKJV) “When a man has taken a new wife, he shall not go out to war or be charged with any business; he shall be free at home one year, and bring happiness to his wife whom he has taken.

But hey buckeroo, this is supper, not war.

:20 therefore I cannot come


What’s your excuse?

God has invited us to His Great Supper.
Everything has been made ready.
There actually is something that can keep you from God’s supper, but God has already taken care of that problem.
The problem isn’t property, oxen, or a wife.
The problem is “sin”.
Our sin is what separates us from God.

(Isaiah 59:1–2 NKJV) —1 Behold, the Lord’s hand is not shortened, That it cannot save; Nor His ear heavy, That it cannot hear. 2 But your iniquities have separated you from your God; And your sins have hidden His face from you, So that He will not hear.

God did the one thing that was necessary to take care of your sin – He sent His Son to die as a sacrifice for you.

(John 3:16 NKJV) For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.

And now God simply asks you to “come” and follow.
Is sounds pretty easy, and in a way it is.
But “coming” means that you must “leave” something.
When you “come” to God, you must leave your old way of life.

(Matthew 16:24 NKJV) Then Jesus said to His disciples, “If anyone desires to come after Me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow Me.

We often put it this way - that you must be willing to turn from your sin.  That’s something that some people don’t want to do.

What’s keeping you from coming to God’s Great Supper?
What’s your excuse?

Ben Franklin said, “The man who is good at making excuses is seldom good for anything else.”

Maybe it’s your “investments”

You’ve got too much invested in the ways of the world to follow Jesus – like the guy with the piece of property.

Maybe it’s things you feel you must do first.

Things you want to do before you get serious about God. –

Like the guy who needed to try out his new oxen.

Maybe it’s certain relationships in your life.

You can’t follow Jesus because your parents won’t be too happy.

You can’t follow Jesus because your husband doesn’t want you to come to church.

You can’t follow Jesus because your girlfriend won’t understand.

If you keep saying “no” to Jesus, you just may find that one day you can no longer hear God’s invitation, and it will be too late.
In reality, all your worries about giving things up for God is quite silly.
When a rich young man came to Jesus asking about eternal life, Jesus challenged him to give away all his possessions.

For this man, his “stuff” was keeping him from Jesus.

The man just couldn’t do it.

After the young man walked away…

(Matthew 19:27–29 NKJV) —27 Then Peter answered and said to Him, “See, we have left all and followed You. Therefore what shall we have?” 28 So Jesus said to them, “Assuredly I say to you, that in the regeneration, when the Son of Man sits on the throne of His glory, you who have followed Me will also sit on twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel. 29 And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or wife or children or lands, for My name’s sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and inherit eternal life.

Don’t let your excuses keep you from God.

:21 So that servant came and reported these things to his master. Then the master of the house, being angry, said to his servant, ‘Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in here the poor and the maimed and the lame and the blind.’

cameparaginomai – to be present, to come near, approach; to come forth, make one’s public appearance

reportedapaggello – to bring tidings (from a person or a thing), bring word, report; to proclaim, to make known openly, declare

:21 the master of the house, being angry

being angryorgizo – to provoke, to arouse to anger; to be provoked to anger, be angry, be wroth

master of the houseoikodespotes – master of the house, householder

Who is the master angry with? Is He angry with the servant? No.

He’s angry with those who were invited but did not respond to the invitation.

:21 Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city

streetsplateia – a broad way, a street

lanesrhume – a swing, rush, force, trail, of a body in motion; a tract of way in a town shut in by buildings on both sides; a street, a lane

The original Greek words are describing places that are close by – reaching out to places near you, reaching out to your local city.

:21 bring in here the poor and the maimed and the lame and the blind

the poorptochos – reduced to beggary, begging, asking alms; destitute of wealth, influence, position, honour

the maimedanaperos – disabled in the limbs, maimed, crippled; injured in, or bereft of, some member of the body

the haltcholos – lame; deprived of a foot, maimed

the blindtuphlos – blind; mentally blind

bring in hereeisago – to lead in

These are the exact same people Jesus described (vs. 13) as those we ought to be inviting to our parties.

It’s also the opposite of who the Pharisees expected to be at the banquet.
no one can attend the banquet who is “smitten in his flesh, or paralyzed in his feet or hands, or lame, or blind or deaf or dumb or smitten in his flesh with a visible blemish.”[3]


Unconditional Love

God wants us to learn to give in such a way that we don’t expect anything in return.
Give to people who don’t deserve it.
This is the way that God gives
Video:  Simon’s Cat – Double Trouble
There are people like that in our lives aren’t there?
People who just cause us trouble and we’d like to push them away.
Sometimes God wants us to reach out and give them unconditional love.
(Ephesians 4:31–32 NKJV) —31 Let all bitterness, wrath, anger, clamor, and evil speaking be put away from you, with all malice. 32 And be kind to one another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God in Christ forgave you.

The Greek word for “forgiving” is the word for “grace”.

We are to “grace” each other.

We are to give each other love that isn’t deserved.

:22 And the servant said, ‘Master, it is done as you commanded, and still there is room.’

commandedepitasso – to enjoin upon, order, command, charge

roomtopos – place, any portion or space marked off, as it were from surrounding space

:23 Then the master said to the servant, ‘Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled.

:23 that my house may be filled.

may be filledgemizo – to fill, fill full

God wants to have a full house.

:23 Go out into the highways and hedges

highwayshodos – a way; a travelled way, road; a travelers way, journey, travelling

hedgesphragmos – a hedge, a fence; that which separates, prevents two from coming together

When the master first sent the servant out, it was to local places – streets and lanes in the city.

Now the master tells the servant to go as far as possible and reach as many as possible.

:23 compel them to come in

compel anagkazo – to necessitate, compel, drive to, constrain; by force, threats

Sounds like a pretty strong word.


Reach out

God’s desire is that we see that the church works outside these walls.
I think it’s a good thing every once in a while, to get out of your comfort zone and reach out in a place that’s foreign to you.
It might be in South Africa, Hungary, and Russia.
It could be as simple as a trip to Mexico.  Manuel and Jennifer are going on Sept. 9-11.  All you need is a passport.
Think about getting involved in Operation Christmas Child, whether it’s by putting together a shoebox that will be sent to another country, or helping here during Collection Week November 14-21.

:24 For I say to you that none of those men who were invited shall taste my supper.’ ”

:24 none of those men who were invited shall taste my supper

shall tastegeuomai – to taste, to try the flavour of


Hearing isn’t enough

Though Jesus is talking about the Jews who are listening to His message, this applies to you all here today as well.
It’s not enough to just hear the message, you must respond.
You must come follow Jesus.
Today, you have heard the gospel.
Today is the day to follow Jesus.

[1] Bailey, K. E. (2008). Jesus through Middle Eastern Eyes: Cultural Studies in the Gospels (p. 310). Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic.

[2] Bailey, K. E. (2008). Jesus through Middle Eastern Eyes: Cultural Studies in the Gospels (p. 311). Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic.

[3] Bailey, K. E. (2008). Jesus through Middle Eastern Eyes: Cultural Studies in the Gospels (p. 311). Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic.