Luke 22:14-23

Wednesday Evening Bible Study

May 8, 2002


Jesus is in His final night.  Peter and John have found a place to celebrate the Passover in Jerusalem.  The table is set.

:14-21 Passover Supper

:14  And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him.

was comeginomai – to become, i.e. to come into existence, begin to be, receive being; to become, i.e. to come to pass, happen.  Aorist tense.

the hourhora – a certain definite time or season fixed by natural law and returning with the revolving year; the daytime (bounded by the rising and setting of the sun), a day; a twelfth part of the day-time, an hour, (the twelve hours of the day are reckoned from the rising to the setting of the sun); any definite time, point of time, moment

he sat down anapipto – to lie back, lie down; to recline at a table, to sit back

Which “hour”?

It could be that it simply is referring to the hour when the Passover meal is to begin, around 6:00 p.m.

But there is a usage of the word “hour” where Jesus refers to a special period of time, when He would die for the sins of the world.

(John 2:4 KJV)  Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do with thee? mine hour is not yet come.
(John 8:20 KJV)  These words spake Jesus in the treasury, as he taught in the temple: and no man laid hands on him; for his hour was not yet come.
(John 12:23 KJV)  And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man should be glorified.
(John 12:27 KJV)  Now is my soul troubled; and what shall I say? Father, save me from this hour: but for this cause came I unto this hour.
(John 13:1 KJV)  Now before the feast of the passover, when Jesus knew that his hour was come that he should depart out of this world unto the Father, having loved his own which were in the world, he loved them unto the end.

:15 And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer:

with desire epithumia – desire, craving, longing, desire for what is forbidden, lust

I have desired epithumeo – to turn upon a thing; to have a desire for, long for, to desire; to lust after, covet; of those who seek things forbidden.  Aorist tense.

(Luke 22:15 NKJV)  Then He said to them, "With fervent desire I have desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer;

(Luke 22:15 NLT)  Jesus said, "I have looked forward to this hour with deep longing, anxious to eat this Passover meal with you before my suffering begins.

(Luke 22:15 NIV)  And he said to them, "I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover with you before I suffer.

Why has Jesus greatly desired this Passover?

Because this is the moment He’s been waiting for.  This is the Passover where He is going to die for the sins of the world.  This is the Passover feast where He is going to give a marvelous thing to His disciples, Communion, where they can remember what He’s going to have done for them.

passover pascha – the paschal sacrifice (which was accustomed to be offered for the people’s deliverance of old from Egypt); the paschal lamb, i.e. the lamb the Israelites were accustomed to slay and eat on the fourteenth day of the month of Nisan (the first month of their year) in memory of the day on which their fathers, preparing to depart from Egypt, were bidden by God to slay and eat a lamb, and to sprinkle their door posts with its blood, that the destroying angel, seeing the blood, might pass over their dwellings; Christ crucified is likened to the slain paschal lamb; the paschal supper; the paschal feast, the feast of the Passover, extending from the 14th to the 20th day of the month Nisan

The Lexicons all say that this is a Greek word that is derived from an Aramaic or Hebrew word, pecach, which is the word for Passover.

I suffer pascho – to be affected or have been affected, to feel, have a sensible experience, to undergo; in a good sense, to be well off, in good case; in a bad sense, to suffer sadly, be in a bad plight; of a sick person

Though these words are seemingly unrelated, they seem very, very similar.  I wonder if Jesus’ usage of both these words in the same sentence isn’t drawing out the fact that the pascha was the time for His pascho.  The Passover was the time for His suffering.

In fact, not just that He is about to suffer.  But that He MUST suffer at the pascha, or the pesach.

:16 For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God.

fulfilledpleroo – to make full, to fill up, i.e. to fill to the full; to render full, i.e. to complete; to make complete in every particular, to render perfect; to carry through to the end, to accomplish, carry out, (some undertaking)

What does Jesus mean by this?

He is saying that the picture that the Passover feast paints is about to be fulfilled.

The Lamb is about to pay for the sins of the world.  The Lamb is about to use His blood so that God would pass over the sins of those who believe.

:17 And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves:

he tookdechomai – to take with the hand; to take up, receive; to receive, get

the cuppoterion – a cup, a drinking vessel

gave thanks eucharisteo – to be grateful, feel thankful; give thanks

This is where the word “Eucharist” comes from.

take thislambano – to take; to receive (what is given), to gain, get, obtain, to get back

divide itdiamerizo – to cleave asunder, cut in pieces; to be divided into opposing parts, to be at variance, in dissension; to distribute

The Passover Feast

In the celebration of the Passover feast, there were certain things that were done during the dinner.

When the group was settled, the first cup of wine was filled, and a blessing was asked by the head of the family on the feast, as well as a special one on the cup.
This is probably this first cup that Jesus is taking here. It was called the cup of sanctification.
Then the bitter herbs were placed on the table and a portion of them were eaten, reminding the family of the bitterness of their bondage in Egypt.
Then the unleavened bread was handed around next.  It is interesting that there was supposed to be three loaves of bread kept in little cloth sacks.  The middle or second loaf was to be broken. 
After the bread was passed around, the lamb was eaten, and the second cup of wine was drunk, the cup of “plagues”. 
Then the son would ask the father the meaning of the feast in accordance with Ex. 12:26.  The Father would remind the family of the suffering in Egypt and God’s deliverance. 
A song of praise was sung.  The Hallel or “Praise” songs were sung
The lamb was then carved and eaten, followed by a third cup of wine, the cup of redemption.
There was a final cup of wine, the cup of praise.

:18 For I say unto you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come.

drinkpino – to drink; figuratively, to receive into the soul what serves to refresh strengthen, nourish it unto life eternal

the fruitgennema – that which has been born or begotten; the offspring or progeny of men or animals; the fruits of the earth, the produce of agriculture

the vineampelos – a vine

Jesus did drink vinegar while on the cross.

(John 19:28-30 KJV)  After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst. {29} Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth. {30} When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.

But the point could be made that the kingdom had come.  Jesus had paid for our sins and established a new way to come to God, through the cross.

Others look at this as Jesus saying that the next time He would drink wine with His disciples is after He comes back to set up His kingdom on earth.

:19-20  Communion

:19 And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me.

he tooklambano – to take; to receive (what is given), to gain, get, obtain, to get back

breadartos – food composed of flour mixed with water and baked; food of any kind

gave thankseucharisteo – to be grateful, feel thankful; give thanks

brake it klao – to break; used in the NT of the breaking of bread or communion.  It is always used to describe breaking bread in the NT

Paul will tell us

(1 Cor 11:24 KJV)  And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me.
Even though there wasn’t any bones broken in Jesus at His death (to fulfill the Passover Lamb picture), His body was broken, especially when He was whipped.

(Isa 53:5-6 KJV)  But he was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was upon him; and with his stripes we are healed. {6} All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on him the iniquity of us all.

God laid upon Jesus all of my sin.  His body was broken.

bodysoma – the body both of men or animals; is used of a (large or small) number of men closely united into one society, or family as it were; a social, ethical, mystical body

forhuper – in behalf of, for the sake of

is givendidomi – to give; to give something to someone

remembrance anamnesis – a remembering, recollection

The bread remains bread.  It does not magically turn into the flesh of Jesus.

It is meant to make us remember Him.  It is meant to make us remember His body.
It used to be that the Passover feast would cause the people to remember what God had done in Egypt.
Jesus now tells His disciples that they are to remember Him.

:20 Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you.

likewisehosautos – in like manner, likewise

the cuppoterion – a cup, a drinking vessel

supper deipneo – to sup; especially a formal meal usually held at the evening

It would seem that this might be the last cup, the cup of “praise”.

testament diatheke – a disposition, arrangement, of any sort, which one wishes to be valid, the last disposition which one makes of his earthly possessions after his death, a testament or will; a compact, a covenant, a testament

God has now established a New Agreement between God and man.  Keep in mind, Jesus didn’t just come up with this idea, it was promised long ago.  God had promised that there would be a New Covenant:

(Jer 31:31-34 KJV)  Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah: {32} Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; which my covenant they brake, although I was an husband unto them, saith the LORD:

The New Covenant is contrasted with the Old Covenant.  The Old Covenant is the agreement that God made with Israel through Moses.  It dates back to the time when God took the people out of Egypt.  When did God take the people out of Egypt?  At the Passover.

{33} But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people. {34} And they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know the LORD: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the LORD: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more.

The New Covenant would be something that happens on the inside.  God writes His laws on our heart.  People know the Lord.  And God forgives our sin.

In the Old Covenant, the agreement was “sealed” with blood.

(Exo 24:8 KJV)  And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD hath made with you concerning all these words.
This made the agreement binding.  The people were sprinkled with blood.

The New Covenant is also sealed with blood.  The cup is to remind us of this.

forhuper – in behalf of, for the sake of

is shedekcheo – to pour out, shed forth; metaph. to bestow or distribute largely

Jesus’ blood was given to pay for our sin.

(Lev 17:11 KJV)  For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul.

(1 John 1:7 KJV)  But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.

:21-23  The Betrayer

:21 But, behold, the hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.

him that betrayethparadidomi – to give into the hands (of another); to give over into (one’s) power or use; to deliver to one something to keep, use, take care of, manage; to deliver up one to custody, to be judged, condemned, punished, scourged, tormented, put to death; to deliver up treacherously; by betrayal to cause one to be taken

the tabletrapeza – a table

In the gospel of John (John 13:18), Jesus quotes from Psalm 41 –

(Psa 41:9 KJV)  Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me.

:22 And truly the Son of man goeth, as it was determined: but woe unto that man by whom he is betrayed!

goethporeuomai – to lead over, carry over, transfer; to pursue the journey on which one has entered, to continue on one’s journey

it was determinedhorizo – to define; to mark out the boundaries or limits (of any place or thing) 1b to determine, appoint; that which has been determined, acc. to appointment, decree; to ordain, determine, appoint

It was in God’s plan for Jesus to die for our sins from the very beginning.

Re 13:8  And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

he is betrayedparadidomi – to give into the hands (of another); to give over into (one’s) power or use; to deliver to one something to keep, use, take care of, manage; to deliver up one to custody, to be judged, condemned, punished, scourged, tormented, put to death; to deliver up treacherously; by betrayal to cause one to be taken


God’s will and man’s will

God had determined that Jesus would die for the sins of the world.
But there was a sense in which Judas was making his own choices.

:23 And they began to inquire among themselves, which of them it was that should do this thing.

they beganarchomai – to be the first to do (anything), to begin; to begin, make a beginning

to inquiresuzeteo – to seek or examine together; in the NT to discuss, dispute, question

that shouldmello – to be about; to be on the point of doing or suffering something; to intend, have in mind, think to

Matthew gives us a little more detail.

(Mat 26:20-25 KJV)  Now when the even was come, he sat down with the twelve. {21} And as they did eat, he said, Verily I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me. {22} And they were exceeding sorrowful, and began every one of them to say unto him, Lord, is it I?



I think the disciples are setting a good example.  Rather than pointing their fingers at each other and wondering if it is the “other guy”, they are all wondering about themselves.
When you read Scripture, do you think of what other people should be doing, or are you asking, “Is it I?”

{23} And he answered and said, He that dippeth his hand with me in the dish, the same shall betray me. {24} The Son of man goeth as it is written of him: but woe unto that man by whom the Son of man is betrayed! it had been good for that man if he had not been born. {25} Then Judas, which betrayed him, answered and said, Master, is it I? He said unto him, Thou hast said.


Don’t be self-deceived

Perhaps Judas was just trying to cover his tracks by asking this question in front of the other disciples.
I know that we can deceive ourselves into thinking that we could never do certain things, and then we turn around and do them.



(1 Cor 11:17-33 KJV)  Now in this that I declare unto you I praise you not, that ye come together not for the better, but for the worse. {18} For first of all, when ye come together in the church, I hear that there be divisions among you; and I partly believe it. {19} For there must be also heresies among you, that they which are approved may be made manifest among you. {20} When ye come together therefore into one place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper. {21} For in eating every one taketh before other his own supper: and one is hungry, and another is drunken. {22} What? have ye not houses to eat and to drink in? or despise ye the church of God, and shame them that have not? What shall I say to you? shall I praise you in this? I praise you not.
Paul is rebuking the Corinthians because they were abusing the Lord’s Supper.  It wasn’t a good thing to them.  It was a time when people hurt each other.  Some even got drunk.
{23} For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: {24} And when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. {25} After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. {26} For as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come. {27} Wherefore whosoever shall eat this bread, and drink this cup of the Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.
I think Paul is referring to the abuses in the Corinthian church when he talks of taking communion “unworthily”.
{28} But let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of that bread, and drink of that cup.
Communion ought to be a time for self-examination.  Is it I?
{29} For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body. {30} For this cause many are weak and sickly among you, and many sleep. {31} For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged. {32} But when we are judged, we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be condemned with the world. {33} Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come together to eat, tarry one for another.