Judges 19-21

Sunday Evening Bible Study

December 9, 2001


There is a phrase that pops up four times at the end of the book of Judges, “there was no king in Israel”.  It is found twice in the story of the Levite who led the tribe of Dan into idolatry (Judges 17:6; 18:1)

(Judg 17:6 KJV)  In those days there was no king in Israel, but every man did that which was right in his own eyes.

(Judg 18:1 KJV)  In those days there was no king in Israel …

It is found twice in the story we’ll look at this morning, at the beginning (19:1) and at the end (21:25).

Both stories seem intended to give us an open window into the conditions of the nation at the time of the Judges.  Especially in the story we see this morning, we see just how utterly corrupt the people had become.

Later, in the book of 1Samuel, the people will be begging the prophet Samuel to give them a king –

(1 Sam 8:7 KJV)  And the LORD said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them.

What we have in our story this morning is really a picture of what life becomes when Jesus does not reign in our lives.  He is a king –

(Isa 9:6-7 KJV) For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. {7} Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.

(Rev 19:16 NLT) On his robe and thigh was written this title: King of kings and Lord of lords.

When Jesus isn’t King - Judges 19

:1 when there was no king in Israel … a certain Levite …

Levite – a man from the tribe of Levi. The Levites were to be the spiritual leaders of the nation. The Levites were to be helpers for the priests. This Levite has been living among the people of the tribe of Ephraim.

Though this man ought to be acting like a spiritual leader, you won’t see it in his actions.

He’s a man whose life is characterized by partying. He’s a man who doesn’t have a clue about being a good husband. He’s a man who is more concerned for his own safety than his wife’s.

mount Ephraim – the hill country belonging to the tribe of Ephraim. See map

Bethlehemjudah – the town of Bethlehem in Judah. Same as the birthplace of David and Jesus. See map

This town has an interesting history.

In the book of Judges, when there was “no king”, it was the town where some pretty confused people came from.
Back in Judges 17-18, this was the town that another Levite came from, Jonathan the grandson of Moses, who became an illegal priest to the tribe of Dan and led an entire tribe into idolatry.
Here, it is the town where this other messed up Levite married a concubine.
But in the book of Ruth, this is the town that Elimelech and Naomi will come from, the town where Ruth will find her husband Boaz.
This is the town where a king would be born, a man after God’s own heart, David.
This is the town where another King would be born, the King of Kings.

:2 And his concubine played the whore against him

concubine – this was a relationship similar to marriage, but not quite. A concubine was kind of like a “second class” wife. She was guaranteed food, clothing, and marital privileges (Ex. 21:7-11; Deut. 21:10-14), but she had no authority in the family nor shared in the household government. Her children didn’t necessarily share in the family inheritance (Gen. 25:1-6).  Though Abraham had a concubine, and Solomon had hundreds of them, the relationship was not what God originally designed for marriage.

The concubine didn’t like the way things were at home, so she left and went back to her daddy’s house in Bethlehem.


When Jesus isn’t King, your marriage suffers

The idea of having a concubine in the first place is off base.
God’s original idea was for one man and one woman to be committed to each other for life.  God’s idea was for woman to be man’s helper, not his servant. God’s idea of marriage was one of total openness and acceptance.  God’s idea of marriage was that a man and a woman intermingle their lives so much that the two become one.
The Jewish historian Josephus writes (Antiquities, 5:2:8)
… that they quarrelled one with another perpetually; and at last the woman was so disgusted at these quarrels, that she left her husband, and went to her parents in the fourth month.
Having a concubine was tolerated in the Old Testament, but it wasn’t what God originally designed.  It was a cheap substitute.
When Jesus isn’t King in your life, your value of the things He values goes down.
God’s idea of marriage is that a husband learns to love his wife completely and sacrificially.

(Eph 5:25 KJV)  Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the church, and gave himself for it;

:3 And her husband arose …to speak friendly unto her

friendlyleb – inner man, mind, will, heart, understanding. He came to speak to her “heart”. He wants to talk and bring his wife back home.

The father-in-law apparently likes the Levite.

:4-9 (don’t read)

The Levite stays at his father-in-law’s house for five days.  Every time the Levite decides to head home, the father-in-law asks him to stay for one more meal, for “just one more drink”. Finally, the Levite decides it’s time to go.

:5  Comfort thine heart with a morsel of bread, and afterward go your way.

The father-in-law has been enjoying this time with his son-in-law and asks him to wait until a meal is served before he goes.

:6 Be content, I pray thee, and tarry all night, and let thine heart be merry.

When the meal is finished, the day is almost gone, and the father-in-law convinces the Levite to spend one more night.

:10 the man would not tarry that night … came over against Jebus

Jebus – one of the ancient names of the city of Jerusalem. Jerusalem is six miles north of Bethlehem. See map

The father-in-law tries the same approach as before, but this time the Levite puts his foot down and leaves.

:12 we will pass over to Gibeah.

The Levite thought that it would be better to stay in the city of Israel than to stay among non-Israelis. It might seem as if this was a mistake.

:13 to one of these places to lodge all night, in Gibeah, or in Ramah.

Cities about five miles from Jerusalem.

Gibeah – This will be the main city around which the action takes place. About 5 miles from Jerusalem. See map

Ramah – About 5 miles from Jerusalem. See map

:15 for there was no man that took them into his house to lodging.

In those days, there weren’t “motels” or “hotels” in every city. Instead, a traveler would hang out in the city square and people would respond in hospitality to invite you to stay at their house.

The fact that no one invites them in is not a good sign. This is the point in the movie where the weird, scary music begins to play.

:16-20 (don’t read)

Finally, an old man from the same tribe as the Levite, walks by and invites the whole group to stay at his house.

:20 let all thy wants lie upon me; only lodge not in the street.

The old man, who is originally from the same area as the Levite, offers his home for the night.

:22  making their hearts merry

The Levite is spending another night hitting the bottle, just like when he was with his father-in-law.

:22  certain sons of Belial …Bring forth the man

Belial[email protected]‘al –worthless, good for nothing, unprofitable, “wicked men” (NIV), “perverted men” (NKJV).

that we may know him – These men are homosexuals. This sounds exactly like what happened in Genesis 19, when the angels visited Lot to tell him to leave Sodom (Gen. 19).

:24 Behold, here is my daughter a maiden

I guess it’s nice that the old man wants to protect his guest, but what’s with offering his daughter and the man’s concubine to these wicked men?

:25  the man took his concubine, and brought her forth unto them

The Levite takes his concubine and pushes her out the door. She is gang raped by the wicked men all night.


When Jesus isn’t king, believers are the same as the world

Who are these wicked men?  They are children of Israel.  They ought to know better.  Yet they’ve descended into a pit of wicked, uncontrolled lust.  In fact, their actions are exactly like those of the men of Sodom (Gen. 19).
As believers, we ought to be different than the world.
(Eph 5:1-6 KJV)  Be ye therefore followers of God, as dear children; {2} And walk in love, as Christ also hath loved us, and hath given himself for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a sweetsmelling savour. {3} But fornication, and all uncleanness, or covetousness, let it not be once named among you, as becometh saints; {4} Neither filthiness, nor foolish talking, nor jesting, which are not convenient: but rather giving of thanks. {5} For this ye know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God. {6} Let no man deceive you with vain words: for because of these things cometh the wrath of God upon the children of disobedience.
The wickedness doesn’t stop with men of Gibeah.
The old man was more concerned the safety of his guest than the safety of his own daughter.
The Levite is more concerned about his own safety than that of his concubine.
You might think, “But these men were simply acting out of self-defense, don’t be too harsh on them!”
When Jesus is King, a Jonathan is willing to face an entire Philistine army on his own.  When Jesus is King, a Daniel will not stop praying and an angel stops the mouths of the lions.

:26 the woman … fell down at the door

The woman is on the verge of death, and with her last bit of strength, collapses at the door of the old man’s house. She dies on the doorstep.

:27 her lord rose up in the morning

lord‘adown – firm, strong, lord, master; husband

The woman was lying in the doorway, face down, with her hands clasping the threshold.

He “rose up” because he had been “lying down”.  You kind of get the idea that the Levite must have gone to bed and had a good night’s sleep.  Perhaps he got up and cooked breakfast and packed his bags before heading out the door, assuming he would be heading home.

:28 he said unto her, Up, and let us be going. But none answered.

Sounds like he really cared for his concubine, huh? NOT!


When Jesus isn’t king, you don’t care very much

Jesus said a sign of the end times was –
(Mat 24:12 NASB)  "And because lawlessness is increased, most people's love will grow cold.
But when Jesus is King in your life, you will be a lover of people.
(John 13:34-35 KJV)  A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another. {35} By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.
(1 John 3:16 KJV)  Hereby perceive we the love of God, because he laid down his life for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren.

:29 he took a knife …and divided her …into twelve pieces

The Levite is sending a message to the nation. Kind of grisly, isn’t it? I’d hate to be one of the UPS guys who had to deliver the package.  Josephus records (Antiquities 5.2.8),

he sent them to every tribe, and gave it in charge to those that carried them, to inform the tribes of those that were the causes of his wife’s death and of the violence they had offered to her.

Later, Saul will do something similar as one of his first acts as king. He will cut up his oxen and send the pieces of the oxen throughout the nation with a message –

(1 Sam 11:6-7 KJV) And the spirit of God came upon Saul when he heard those tidings, and his anger was kindled greatly. {7} And he took a yoke of oxen, and hewed them in pieces, and sent them throughout all the coasts of Israel by the hands of messengers, saying, Whosoever cometh not forth after Saul and after Samuel, so shall it be done unto his oxen. And the fear of the LORD fell on the people, and they came out with one consent.

The Levite has certainly gotten the attention of the nation


I thought you said …

A man writes, “I was going to bed the other night when my wife told me that I had left the light on in the shed, she could see from the bedroom window. As I looked for myself, I saw that there were people in the shed taking things. I phoned the police, but they told me that no one was in the area to help at this time, but they would send someone over as soon as they were available. I said OK, hung up, and waited one minute, then phoned the police back. “Hello. I just called you a minute ago because there were people in my shed. Well, you don’t have to worry about them now cause I’ve shot them all.” Within five minutes there were half a dozen police cars in the area, an Armed Response unit, the works. Of course, they caught the burglars red-handed. One of the officers said: “I thought you said that you’d shot them!” I replied with “I thought you said there was nobody available!””

:30 There was no such deed done …

It could be they’re talking about the cutting up of the woman. It could be that they’re talking about the moral depravity of the men of Gibeah.

Judges 20

:1  the congregation was gathered together as one man, from Dan even to Beersheba, with the land of Gilead, unto the LORD in Mizpeh.

Dan even to Beersheba – from the farthest north to the farthest south

Gilead – the tribes that settled on the eastern side of the Jordan River

Mizpeh – not the Mizpah in Gilead where Jephthah had been, but a Mizpah located in the tribe of Benjamin. See map

unto the LORD – The nation is trying it’s best to do what the Lord wants them to do.

:2  four hundred thousand footmen that drew sword.

Do you think they brought the pieces with them? An army of 400,000 has been created.

:3  the children of Benjamin heard that the children of Israel were gone up to Mizpeh

It’s possible that the tribe of Benjamin received one of the pieces of the concubine, but chose not to go to Mizpeh.

:4-10  (don’t read)

The Levite tells the people all about what happened at Gibeah.  The nation is so incensed that they promise to take care of things.

:4 the husband of the woman that was slain, answered and said …

the husband‘iysh – man; husband

The Levite now will tell his story to the nation.

:10  take ten men of an hundred … to fetch victual for the people

One tenth of the men will be employed with finding provisions (food) for the rest of the army.

:13 Now therefore deliver us the men

The nation asks the tribe of Benjamin to hand over the men who perpetrated the crime. The tribe decides to protect its own and won’t hand over the criminals.

Doesn’t this sound a lot like what is happening in Afghanistan? We asked the Taliban government to hand over bin Laden, and they have refused.


It is right to bring judgment

We need to be careful not to think that this was a mistake.  All along the way, the Lord is involved in this decision of the nation to bring judgment.  God gives governments the right to bring judgment (Rom. 13:1-4).  Several more times they will ask God just to make sure, and God will make it clear that they are to enforce God’s laws.
(Rom 13:1-4 NLT)  Obey the government, for God is the one who put it there. All governments have been placed in power by God. {2} So those who refuse to obey the laws of the land are refusing to obey God, and punishment will follow. {3} For the authorities do not frighten people who are doing right, but they frighten those who do wrong. So do what they say, and you will get along well. {4} The authorities are sent by God to help you. But if you are doing something wrong, of course you should be afraid, for you will be punished. The authorities are established by God for that very purpose, to punish those who do wrong.
It was even proper for an entire city to be destroyed for it’s wickedness (Deut. 12:12-18)
(Deu 13:12-18 KJV)  If thou shalt hear say in one of thy cities, which the LORD thy God hath given thee to dwell there, saying, {13} Certain men, the children of Belial, are gone out from among you, and have withdrawn the inhabitants of their city, saying, Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known; {14} Then shalt thou inquire, and make search, and ask diligently; and, behold, if it be truth, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought among you; {15} Thou shalt surely smite the inhabitants of that city with the edge of the sword, destroying it utterly, and all that is therein, and the cattle thereof, with the edge of the sword. {16} And thou shalt gather all the spoil of it into the midst of the street thereof, and shalt burn with fire the city, and all the spoil thereof every whit, for the LORD thy God: and it shall be an heap for ever; it shall not be built again. {17} And there shall cleave nought of the cursed thing to thine hand: that the LORD may turn from the fierceness of his anger, and show thee mercy, and have compassion upon thee, and multiply thee, as he hath sworn unto thy fathers; {18} When thou shalt hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, to keep all his commandments which I command thee this day, to do that which is right in the eyes of the LORD thy God.

:14 the children of Benjamin gathered themselves … to battle

All the men of Benjamin gather at Gibeah, where the battle will be.


When Jesus is king, men admit their failures

In our own times, we have seen these Taliban leaders protecting the terrorists, and they are now rightfully paying the price.
Be careful that you don’t find yourself defending evil
In our own lives, when we are confronted with sin, the proper response is not to get defensive and go to war, but to confess our sins.
(Prov 28:13 KJV)  He that covereth his sins shall not prosper: but whoso confesseth and forsaketh them shall have mercy.

:15-25  (don’t read)

As the battle begins to draw near, the Benjamites have an army of 26,000 to face the rest of the nation with their army of 400,000.  On the first day of battle, the Israelites lose 22,000 warriors while the Benjamites lose nothing.  On the second day of battle, the Israelites lose another 18,000, while the Benjamites lose nothing.

:15 twenty and six thousand men …

Keep in mind, these 26,000 men are going to face the rest of the nation, an army of 400,000.

:16 every one could sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss.

The tribe of Benjamin has 700 men who are very skilled with using a slingshot. For this day and age, these men are equivalent to sharpshooters or long-range artillery. These men would be able to attack an oncoming army before the army even gets close to the city. I believe that from the descriptions of the battles, that the men of Benjamin mostly stayed inside their city for the first two battles and probably relied heavily upon these stone slingers.

:18 and went up to the house of God, and asked counsel of God

the house of God – the Hebrew is Beth-el. It could be that the city of Bethel is meant. See map

Instead of attacking the tribe with all 400,000, the leaders decide that the tribe should take turn attacking Benjamin.

Note: The Lord wants them to attack Benjamin.

:21 destroyed down to the ground of the Israelites that day twenty and two thousand men.

It seems that in the first day of battle, the nation loses 22,000 men, while it doesn’t seem that Benjamin loses any.

:23 asked counsel of the LORD …

The people want to be sure that they’re doing the right thing.

It seems like it works the same way in our nation when we are at war. As soon as the first casualties start appearing, people begin to wonder if we’re doing the right thing.

The nation consults the Lord, and the Lord says they are to continue to fight.

:25 destroyed down to the ground of the children of Israel again eighteen thousand men

The second day is also a bad one for Israel. They lose an additional 18,000 men, bringing their total losses to 38,000. In the end, they will lose more men than Benjamin.

:26 came unto the house of God

the house of God – the Hebrew is Beth-el. It could be that the city of Bethel is meant. See map

:28 Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron

Phinehas – the grandson of Aaron. This tells us that this whole incident took place fairly early in the history of Judges. Phinehas was the priest at the end of the time of Joshua (Joshua 22).

Again, God reconfirms that they are supposed to be doing this.

Why did God allow the nation to lose 40,000 men before defeating the Benjamites?

Perhaps God wanted them to be at the appropriate place of brokenness over the nation’s sin before letting the judgment be complete.


Justice comes with a price.

Police officers are killed in the line of duty. There will be soldiers killed in Afghanistan. Yet it is the right thing.
Jesus broke the power of sin in our lives by dying on the cross for us.

:29-48  (don’t read)

On this third day of battle, Israel will use a different strategy. It will be very similar to the strategy used at the battle of Ai, in Joshua’s day (Joshua 7).

This time, the Israeli army will pretend to be defeated and retreat in such a way that they will cause the Benjamites to follow them.  When they get about a mile from the city, a group of 10,000 warriors who have been hiding will come out and take the city of Gibeah and burn it to the ground.  When the smoke starts to rise up from the city, the main force will stop their retreat and turn on the Benjamites, trapping them between the two armies.

This time, the nation will win and over 25,000 Benjamites will be killed.  Only a small group of 600 Benjamites will escape and find some caves where they will hide for a couple of months.

:33 put themselves in array at Baaltamar

Baaltamar – about a mile from Gibeah. See map

:34 there came against Gibeah ten thousand chosen men

These 10,000 seem to be the ones hiding to ambush the city. The battle was so fierce at Baaltamar with the main force that the men of Benjamin didn’t realize what was happening.

:35 And the LORD smote Benjamin before Israel…twenty and five thousand and an hundred

Note: It was the Lord who finally brought the victory.

25,100 – this is the total number that would eventually fall that day.

:37 the liers in wait hasted, and rushed upon Gibeah

The ambush force of 10,000 take the city first and kill all the inhabitants before they turn to fight the main Benjamite army.

:39 the men of Israel retired in the battle, Benjamin began to smite …

When the main Israeli fighting force sees the smoke rising up from the city, they stop running from Gibeah (“retire”) and turn to face the Benjaminite army. At first Benjamin thinks it’s starting to win the battle again, until they see the smoke behind them.

:42 the battle overtook them

The men of Benjamin panic and begin to try to make an exit by running toward the desert. But they can’t get away in time and are destroyed.

:43 Thus they enclosed the Benjamites round about, and chased them

The main group of the Benjamites flee to the east.

:44 And there fell of Benjamin eighteen thousand men; all these were men of valour.

In this first major battle, 18,000 were killed. The rest of the 21,500 will be killed shortly.

:45 the rock of Rimmon … unto Gidom

Rimmon – a smaller group of Benjamites flee to the west. Rimmon is about 7 miles northwest of Gibeah. 5,000 are killed on the way to Rimmon. See map

Gidom – Very close to Rimmon, another 2,000 are killed, bringing the total to 25,000. See map

:47 six hundred men turned and fled to the wilderness unto the rock Rimmon

600 men make it all the way to Rimmon and hide there in the caves for four months.

:48 they set on fire all the cities that they came to.

The judgment doesn’t stop with the destruction of the army. All the cities of Benjamin are wiped out.

Judges 21

:2 And the people came to the house of God, and abode there till even before God

house of God – or, Bethel (see Judges 20:26).

till even – until evening

:3 why is this come to pass in Israel

The people are very upset that the result of this punishment has ended with one tribe being almost completely wiped out. They have killed all but the six hundred men hiding in Rimmon. With their vow to not give any of their daughters to Benjamin, there is no way for this tribe to continue.

And so a grand scheme is hatched to find six hundred wives for these six hundred warriors, but to do it in a way where they don’t break any of these oaths.

First, they ask if there were any cities that had not participated in the campaign against Benjamin.  When they find out that the city of Jabeshgilead had not sent anyone, they send an army of 12,000 men and wipe out everyone in the city, except for 400 virgins, which they then give to the Benjamites.

Josephus records (Antiquities 5.2.11), Accordingly, those that were sent slew the men of war, with their children and wives, excepting four hundred virgins. To such a degree had they proceeded in their anger, because they not only had the suffering of the Levite’s wife to avenge but the slaughter of their own soldiers.

When Jesus isn’t king, anger goes unchecked.

But they are still 200 wives short.  Someone else cooks up an idea of having the remaining Benjamite Bachelors show up at the next feast in the city of Shiloh.  When the young gals come out to dance during the feast, the bachelors are given permission to kidnap the girls.  If a parent complains, tough luck.  No one will come under the curse since no one will have willingly given their daughter to a Benjamite.

:5 Who is there among all the tribes of Israel that came not up

Somebody comes up with an idea. It starts with finding out who didn’t help with this judgment on Benjamin.

:8 behold, there came none to the camp from Jabeshgilead to the assembly.

Jabeshgilead – a city on the eastern side of the Jordan River. This is the city that King Saul would rescue from the Ammonites a couple hundred years in the future (1Sam. 11). See map

:9 there were none of the inhabitants of Jabeshgilead there.

Nobody from Jabeshgilead ever showed up to help with the punishment of Benjamin.

:11 Ye shall utterly destroy every male, and every woman that hath lain by man.

It seems to me that the nation here is going too far in their judgment of Benjamin.

:12 they brought them unto the camp to Shiloh

Shiloh – one of the cities where the tabernacle had been. See map

:14 Benjamin came … they gave them wives

The people give these men from Benjamin the four hundred gals that they had taken from Jabeshgilead, but they were two hundred short.

Benjamin came again – Josephus records that they came with repentance (Antiquities 5.2.12) –

So these men with sorrow confessed, that what had been done was according to the decree of God, and had happened for their own wickedness;

:15 the people repented them for Benjamin, because that the LORD had made a breach

repentednacham – to be sorry, repent, regret

breach – a gap

:19 there is a feast of the LORD in Shiloh … Shechem .. south of Lebonah.

a feast of the LORD – possibly the Feast of Tabernacles, or, Booths (Sukkoth), which happened at the end of the harvest, a time of feasting, joy, dancing, etc.

This would probably have been a time when much of the nation was gathered together for the feast. It wouldn’t just be people from Shiloh.

ShechemSee map

LebonahSee map

:21 catch you every man his wife of the daughters of Shiloh

They are suggesting that these men of Benjamin kidnap the women of Shiloah for their wives.

:22 Be favourable unto them for our sakes

Since the fathers in Shiloh didn’t willingly give their daughters to the Benjamites, they were not guilty of the curse.

:23 whom they caught: and they went and returned

The Roman historian Livy recorded that in the 8th century BC, during the founding of the city of Rome, there was a shortage of women.  The king of the city, Romulus, held a big festival and invited all the neighboring cities.  But it was all a plan to grab wives.  With a predetermined signal, the young men of Rome snatched all the young Sabine women and carried them off.  Later they sweet-talked the women into staying.

:25 In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes.


Anger brings trouble

When Jesus isn’t your King, your anger will get you into trouble.
(Prov 19:19 KJV)  A man of great wrath shall suffer punishment: for if thou deliver him, yet thou must do it again.
(Prov 19:19 NLT)  Short-tempered people must pay their own penalty. If you rescue them once, you will have to do it again.
(James 1:19-20 KJV)  Wherefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath: {20} For the wrath of man worketh not the righteousness of God.


The folly of human wisdom

If you read carefully through chapter 21, you will notice that God is not directing any of these crazy ideas.
How could they wipe out Jabeshgilead like this?  How could they encourage kidnapping? These are human solutions to human problems.
When Jesus is King in your life, you will ask Him for direction.

Back when I was in college, we had a tract called the Four Spiritual Laws from Campus Crusade that we used to share with people.  In one place in the tract, there were two circles, representing two different lives.  In each circle there was a “throne”.  One circle contained chaos, and it was the circle where “self” was on the “throne”.  The other circle pictured order and peace, and it was the circle where Jesus was on the throne.

Who is on the throne in your life?  Who is your King?